Wang Haoquan: It is not a scientist who changed the world. It is a scientific business family 丨 scientist entrepreneurship series 06

Monkeys have been difficult to evolve, and people become entrepreneurs. Scientists become uncomfortable.

2012 "Entrepreneur Magazine" has made a special planning, discussing "When scientists become entrepreneurs." This role will encounter a wide variety of problems. For example, when scientists / entrepreneurs encounter the system, encounter the market and encounter capital. We even summed up the "seven sins" of scientists. The reporter of "Entrepreneur Magazine" found that many scientists are "pseudo-entrepreneurship", many entrepreneurs "personality division", but in front of entrepreneurship, equal equality, scientists especially self-revolution.

In 2017, "Dr. Shui Dynasty" is sprinkled and wrote an 87,000 word "technology stagnation." Only for discussion: human science and technology levels come to the bottleneck, will face the stagnation of technology development in the future. He smashed the technology explosion and exploded by fireworks: the moment of fireworks explosion was beautiful and beautiful, but when people saw it, the explosion was close to the end.

I didn’t pay attention to Wang Yuquan to see his views on technology stagnation. But from interviews you can feel that he is a technology musician. Shortly after the interview, Wang Hao has conducted a lecture called "Technical and Cultural Symbolic Evolution".

This article is the sixth article, and the trend is related to the number of scientists. In response to technological innovation, technology companies, Wang Yizhen shared his observation and thinking from the two perspectives of supply.

From the perspective of demand, Wang Yizhen believes that the technology revolution roll forward. Behind every scientific revolution, breakthrough new technologies will lead the whole society to form a new growth paradigm and production paradigm. The steam technology revolution, the core of the power technology revolution is the problem of product scale. The third scientific and technological revolution is solved by the problem of service scale. At present, the global industry is in the early stage of service scale.

From the perspective of supply, technology has become more complicated. The realization of science and technology innovation is inseparable from the prosperity of industrial ecology. Industrial prosperity is the core industrial links have corresponding leading companies. Collaboration between them constitutes a prosperous industry. This or one of my country encourages the new reasons for developing specialty. "I have to buy" to realize a domestic substitute for a part, and it is difficult to establish a sound industrial ecology.

After talking about "service size", he even mentioned "creative scale". "Creative scale" can be achieved after "service size". In the context of Wang Yuquan, "service scale" corresponds to the information revolution. "Creative scale" belongs to "Creating Revolution", and mankind or will be able to get rid of evolution.

"Technology is changing the world of the times, everyone must bend into the office." Wang Yuquan said.

01 side of the coin: service scale

Before "serving sizes" is the "scale commercialization." "Scale product" is the trend of the two industrial revolutions appeared before the PC.

"Scale commercialization," can be traced back spinning jenny, rather than the Watt steam engine. Combined with the spinning jenny and water, rather than steam, allowing large-scale production of textiles is possible. Europe was the hydraulic power plant industrialized areas commonly used.

The story is this steam engine. Lift the steam engine, Watt had to bring. Watt improved the lives of more than 20 steam engine. In fact, Watts Industrial Revolution is not the most typical figure. Because of that era in the life of Watt, the steam engine has not been large-scale applications. Watt and before, there are a few people’s names should be remembered: Galileo’s student Torricelli, Boyle scientist, scientists Papin, the British army engineer Savery, Newcomen hardware merchant and Corey. Torricelli, Boyle pressure were found (1643), over the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to the volume (Boyle 1662). Papin who served as Boyle’s assistant, he used the liquid boiling point with elevated pressure and elevated principle, in 1679 invented the world’s first pressure cooker, and published works of the steam engine in 1690.

Savery put pressure pumping principle with mine together, and learn the principles of Papin’s invention of the steam engine called "Friends of the miners of" pump. Hardware businessman Newcomen and Savery Corey is the fellow who helped make steam Savery pump model. They create the world’s first all-weather continuous operation, running costs are relatively low steam drainage machine – Newcomen engine, and patented in 1712.

1763 winter, the University of Glasgow purchased a Newcomen steam engine model for physics practice. Experimenter James Watt is responsible for maintaining it. The story behind it is written in the history books. Watt developed a prototype in 1768, patented the following year. After Watt improved the steam engine, brought a series of technological revolution, to promote the production of manual labor leap to power the machine.

The core of the industrial revolution in automation. Automated production of huge significance. During the interview, Wang Yuquan special emphasis on the fact that an easily overlooked:Those who built the first mill in the UK to become the richest person in Britain."Before the richest man in all kings, generals, are playing down. But the richest man is earned out. This is the first time the world has changed the rules of the game and you can become the richest man by money." "If you can not murder and arson will be able to make a profit two percent or three hundred, why do you want to murder and arson? "Wang Yuquan said.

After the discovery of this new way to get rich, we embarked on the entrepreneurial path. This road and the road is not a zero sum game. Entrepreneurs lead the way is not looting, but as much as possible large-scale production, will provide products to as many people to use.Since the industrial revolution, in fact, another identity is the world’s richest technology entrepreneurs.John D. Rockefeller bought out of oil refining technology, by investing in the construction of large-scale technology into practice. Now the world’s richest elon Musk (Elon Musk) also technology entrepreneurs. Elon Musk has optimized thinking typical of engineers. Musk has said: There is no rocket scientist, rocket engineer only. Because scientists made no rocket, engineers can build rockets. Wang Yuquan was approved this sentence. He also believes that promoting social progress are engineers, entrepreneurs, rather than scientists. "Section and technology are two different things children, Chinese scientists over-emphasized, because the technology is put together,‘Branch’ light stick ‘technology’, the real push society is ‘technology’.Because there are a lot of ‘technology’ is no ‘families’, but no ‘families’, technology is possible progress, but there is no ‘technical’, ‘branch’ on what did not. "

Large-scale automated production make the product possible. Although the product can scale to achieve the scale of production, but there is no way to meet individual needs. Before PC, then technology entrepreneurs is how to solve?The service to the product solidify in.Such as how to meet the needs of users iced watermelon? Sold to users is achieved by a refrigerator. The user’s own holding melon in the refrigerator, you can get iced watermelon. That user through the products and services it provides to its own. After the PC, the digital revolution began, and then after the Internet, mobile Internet era to today’s AI. Wang Yuquan judgment, has now entered the digital revolution to the end. Marked by artificial intelligence so that "the scale of service" as possible.

Specifically, the "service scale" on the premise that meet the individual needs of users, large-scale production of artificial intelligence can be replicated personalized service. "Service scale" What are the characteristics? Still iced watermelon, for example, users no longer want to refrigerators (product) but iced watermelon (service). The user is not concerned with the product (refrigerator) but to serve (iced watermelon). The needs of users (iced watermelon) are directly met. If the "service scale" to see Microsoft, Apple, you can see they are not the same. Microsoft to embrace subscription system, the original can be a one-time buyout of Office productivity software products become Office 365. Office 365 is equivalent to one kind of subscription service, or need to pay a monthly subscription fee per year. Apple is also true. Apple has a large number of mobile phone subscriptions APP is made. In early November this year, well-known application notes Notability sudden change from a subscription-based buyout system, and being on the hot search. In addition, Apple phone AppleCare + (US version), music, news, videos, etc. are subscription-based. The future, mobile phones will be priced less than the total value of the various services the user subscribed.

The service scale, the subscription system is being promoted, and the trend is visible. In the future, even the car can also use a subscription system. Essentially, users buy cars and buy transportation. One-time bought-in delivery cannot be personalized. From the perspective of the service, this approach has a shortcoming. If there are 3 vehicles in 10,000 vehicles, it is bad, it happens to be bought by Zhang San. So, what is the consequence of the car? This is unfair. After changing into the subscription, Zhang San pays for money, encounters the bad car, and the car enterprise can be replaced in time. In this case, Zhang San’s car will never be broken. Under the subscription, the vehicle enterprise needs to provide long-term services to our customers, while IOT equipment such as sensors will continue to monitor the vehicle to ensure uninterrupted providing of quality services.

"The rules of the whole time have changed." Wang Wei commented on the transformation from the size of the product to the scale of service. In the interview, he passed"The synergy of science and technology and culture makes people today"To further interpret the logic behind this shift. he thinks,Society is choosing technology, technology is also choosing society.What technologies need for society, it will make it vital. Conversely, technology is also choosing people. Because the society is not supported, it will not develop. For example, the Industrial Revolution makes the Britain strong, so that it exceeds China that is still in feudal society. The power of the United Kingdom is the result of the two-way selection. This is the same as rice and human society. This two-way selection is now continuing and continues in acceleration. The requirements and techniques of service scale and techniques are mutually selection, mutual promotion, and the era of human society into service scale.

Now, the service is in the early stage. But not all industries are suitable for service size. In the interview, Wang Yuquan talked about two industries. The catering industry currently has a service-scale seedlings. The training industry is difficult to achieve.

Catering, especially high-end catering, is difficult to make universal, and the Ford is so big. What is the reason? Unmatched. The higher the higher, the more difficult it is. Because the chef is top, the top is not significant. The original millet ecological chain vice president Tang Mu created a company called a smart. Such as shadow intelligence has created a kitchen robot. It is a fried steak’s arms robot. Wang Yuquan said that the service is to pass is an experience. The core of service is the copy of excellent experience. There is a classic misunderstanding for service size, "personalization is equal to good service", actually personalization is not equal to good service.

The robot is fried, and the product is solidified to the service to solve the scale, but the new problem comes, and how to let the dish for chain catering brands. Three years without changing dishes means that customers lose their freshness, but the cost of replacing menus is high. The dish will change the menu, change the chef, etc. But a chain restaurant using the cooking robot can be implemented by updating the software. While the ingredient is completed, the new dishes are instantaneously completed in all its restaurants. This means that the catering industry has the possibility of giant and Macon.

"The production logic of the gigabaters has changed. Previously, the logic of the giant Macro business was in a sufficiently large field; now, the logic of the giant Macro business is a big enough The field can provide a good high-end service. "Wang Yuquan said.

(Such as the smart kitchen robot)

The training industry is not suitable. IT and consulting combinations are not easy, because IT companies and consulting companies are different: consulting companies need a lot of manpower, customize different projects for different enterprises, unable to achieve rapid expansion; and IT companies or said a software company has Scale benefits and marginal benefits have the potential for rapid expansion.

Wang Yuquan team shared the most mysterious big data company of Silicon Valley. Even now, there are two main products in Palantir: Gotham (a large number of customized) facing business customers, and Foundry for business customers (more standardized, modular). At present, Palantir is still exploring the path of scale growth, stepping on the stairs between customization and scale. Wang Yuquan believes that artificial intelligence undoubtedly broaden the area of ??service scale and application range, but not all industries have a chance, if there is no chance in one field, you need to avoid it.

For individual companies, US groups calculate half of service-scale companies. Wang Yuquan believes that the current US group has achieved a certain degree of scale, but the weakness is delivering goods. Unmanned distribution is the direction of the current US group being explored. According to incomplete statistics, as of June this year, the US group drone has completed more than 220,000 flight tests, and the long-term length of 600,000 minutes, and the relevant orders for real users have completed 2500 orders. Wang Xing’s public speech in 2018 mentioned: In 2019, it will fully operate unmanned distribution.

2020 US group investment indoor distribution robot enterprise Purdue Technology. In addition to the partners of Purdu Technology, US Mission unmanned distribution platforms, there are autox, SEG Wei, Experimental technology, etc. The figure below shows the list of partners disclosed by the US group unmanned distribution platform.

(US group unmanned distribution platform disclosure partner)

In response to the exploration of unmanned distribution of the US group, Wang Haoquan believes that people have their own use in the age of service. Technical alternatives have two alternatives: one is an occupational alternative, an alternative to machinery, is also the most common practice. The other is occupational enhancement. Simple point, professional enhancement is that 1 person plus 5 machines can do 5 people. For example, Tesla electric truck. Tesla’s logic is not alternative, but the truck can be high-efficient and a driver can open three cars. Under the human machine, the complicated road conditions of automatic driving cannot be handled by people.

Drip is a "hard brother" of the US group."The tactics have become, the strategy is defeated"It is a review of Wang Yizhen to the drip. The new T3 travel made Wang Yizhen very emotion: "When did you see a industry, a rivers and lakes, and some people challenge you." This is becauseWhen automatic driving + electric vehicles come out, the travel industry has emerged.Only in the context of continuous curve, there is an endless newcomer challenge because the next corner has a chance to overtake. In the age of service, the burden of the drip lies in the ownership of the car belongs to the individual owner. Diards don’t have the right when accurate statistics and precise dispatch vehicles. But change has occurred. Last month, the US car rental company Hertz has decided to initially order 100,000 Tesla electric cars.

(Cloud Story Technology Hotel service robot "Xiaituz")

Yunu Technology is "excellent students" of Wang Yizheng recognized by Wang Yizheng. It is also an investment project of sea silver capital. In Wang Yuxi’s mouth, "Xiaolitz" is a cute word. In the hotel, especially late night delivery, "words" it is ignorant, not quietly, which can make guests feel safe. The robot of cloud lavage technology can independently complete the delivery of the delivery from the directive to complete the delivery. It can alleviate the "separation" of the front desk service personnel to a certain extent.

As a investor of cloud lavage technology, Wang Yuxi has enhanced valuation to the cloud of the cloud, and the venture capital negotiations: First, you admit that it does not admit that the future is a service robot? There is always a service robot to go to the community and the residents. Second, in addition to the cloud robot, you can’t find the second productive robot. The founder of Yunu Technology has joked: She is the largest labor outside the head. Because more than 10,000 machines are outsourced into the hotel.

However, Wang Yuquan, but I think she is the most "black heart" capitalist. "There is no salary to the robot. I am all taken."

The other side of 02 coins:Future layout technology industry ecology

The other side of the coin is the scientific industry ecology, on the side of the supply, echoes the changes in the demand side mentioned earlier. One of the changes is that the service scale makes some artificial opportunities for corner overtaking.

The chip industry has this opportunity. In 2018, the Science and Technology Daily has launched the "core technology that needs to be overcome". This column has been published in 35 reports. The first report reported behind the lagging status of the top lightning machine required for high-end chip manufacturing. my country is dispatched at the integrated circuit supply and demand gap. A large number of chips rely on imports. According to the statistics of the General Administration of Customs, in 2020, my country’s integrated circuit imports were 35.5 million US dollars, and exports were $ 116.6 billion. Its difference increased by $ 29.55 billion than $ 203.9 billion in 2019. If the exchange rate of $ 6.3787 yuan is converted to $ 188.43 billion, it is more than 2020 GDP 127.66 billion yuan than Tongliao.

China Chip businesses are in medium and low-end sectors, logic, storage and other high-end chips depend on imports in the global integrated circuit industry. High-end chip manufacturing mainly relying on the manufacturing equipment of the photolithography, the current cutting-edge momentary technology is monopolized by the Netherlands ASML.

The reason why the radiator in the chip field is over-vehicle, because with the rise of the new generation of artificial intelligence, the chip industry has a continuous curve. Just as mentioned in the example of the drip, only the chance of overtaking in a continuous curve. At present, the pattern of general computing chips represented by the CPU has been set, and China is more difficult to make a difference under the established pattern, but there is a chance to make breakthroughs in the special calculation chip field. A group of AI chip companies represented by Cambrian were currently rising. In fact, the opportunity of corner overtaking also appears in the fields of electric vehicles, power batteries. The photovoltaic industry is also a comprehensive leading industry through industrial ecological layout.

"From the perspective of development, when there is a major new technological change in the subverting industry, there is a chance to break the original technical monopoly, and there is also a chance to restruct an industrial ecology. This is precisely the later people with excellent anti-super chance."

(Professor Chen Yunyu, Professor Chen Yun, first released AI chip architecture in the world.

Wang Yuquan mentioned that the two years of China and the United States have also let the industry recognize the core of scientific and technological innovation is the core of the big country, the pursuit of a single indicator is leading, but the industry is not just a single business, but the entire industrial ecology. The strength comparison. As mentioned earlier is the only company in the world that produces high-end lightning machines, and is also a company that can support the company’s US semiconductor industry ecology based on SEMATECH (US Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Strategic Alliance). SEMATECH is a non-profitred R & D institution in 1987 that the US government has established a non-profit of the 14 largest electronic enterprises in native. These companies are taking into a collaboration together with the best research and development power, and joint attack on the core subjects in the electronics industry. $ 200 million in research funds per year, in which the US government and these 14 companies have taken half. The establishment of Sematech has promoted the industry’s internal mutual research and development and achievement sharing, and gradually established a complete industrial ecology, and the Japanese semiconductor industry has solved the "card neck" problem.

Then, how to build a scientific and technological industry ecology in the future of service scale

There are two main body of the industrial ecology, one is the enterprise, and the other is the government.

At the logic level of the enterprise, enterprises should abandon the traditional practice: each battle, trying to create a complete industrial chain inside the company, and fight the competitors and occupy the market share as much as possible. Wang Haoquan believes that industrial ecology is collaborative, it is common prosperity. If a tree covers the sun, it will be trimmed. Now, whether it is a big company or a "special new" company, we should consider what value can provide for the industrial ecology, what contributions can be made for society, but also guarantees good users’ privacy and interests.

At the government level, Wang Haoquan believes that the government should do, it is to cultivate a tropical rainforest, rather than transplanting a big tree.

So how should the Government create an industrial ecology?

The first is to find local features, to create industrial ecology (Qingdao longevity & Technology) has its own advantages.

In 2020, Wang Yuquan team and Qingdao cooperation from the image of the local infirmary of the Holy Land, around the rich Wellness infrastructure, a pleasant climate advantage, for "longevity" and "healthy" demand, to design a "longevity technology" eco-industrial development direction . By combing the key aspects of industrial clusters and industrial collaboration, the team found Wang Yuquan time-consuming and inconvenient problem of traditional health screening, judged by that this is a short board "longevity" industry. On the other hand large medical data companies lack a lot of data can be trained, so they introduce artificial intelligence medical companies Airdoc to Qingdao, get through the demand across the industry. At present, the first batch of 150,000 people of Qingdao have been quicker to enjoy health screening services. This is the docking requirements, new ways to complement each other, and a change in the past to use the money to "buy" investment approach business.

(Qingdao, images from the network)

From the Qingdao example, Wang Yuquan summarizes the key points of the layout of industrial ecology two places in the city: the first, for the future; second, not greedy.

Facing the future, it comes in front of "continuous curve", "turn to overtake," industrial cities should be future-oriented industrial layout. Wang Yuquan think cultivate ecology, should start from scratch, start from early intervention and find their own ecological position, do not think picking the fruit, not in order after ecological and other mature, cut directly into the ecology taking over someone else’s. This road has been demonstrated in the chip industry is not going to work.

"It is a technology any ecological product. Any of the N links have an ecological composition, this corresponds plate consisting of N ‘barrel’ Eco early, the plates are short, only the width of the other. With ecological maturity, these plates grow up together. complete means that a number of enterprises from ecological shortcomings become long board. "he reminded not to ignore the ecology of narrow boards, such as the chip industry this board though narrow lithography machine but it will be deprived of the chip’s "bucket" on the leak. "In the past we always stare at other people the widest plate (Qualcomm), invisible narrow board (lithography). The problem is that even if you put the widest board clutched in his hand, still did not control this ecosystem, because the narrow strip in the hands of people. people are not high-pass, but kill you with ASML. "

Greedy, Wang Yuquan mouth is in place plans for industrial common mistake. For example, after the AI ??fire, many cities have rushed to engage in AI. "We believe that artificial intelligence will not form a sufficiently large industry ecosystem in China more than five. If the domestic front row less than 5, do not play. The top five is a high probability the north of Guangzhou-Shenzhen Hang." Wang Yuquan said suitable What, and local resource endowments and capabilities closely related genes.

Second, setting up enterprise communication platform (Chongqing & electronics industry).

In 2008, the electronics industry in the Midwest is still a blank. From the perspective of industrial Chongqing foster integration starting around parts, raw materials localization, to build a collaborative platform between enterprises. Chongqing and HP docking first production needs, and with Foxconn confinements, final orders to Foxconn for HP’s 20 million units per year, the promotion of their joint investment to build production lines in August 2009. Then seven computer manufacturers and more than 1,000 settled in the surrounding parts factory support, forming a collection of machine parts production and integration, processing, research and development and settlement of the whole industry chain integration. Through research and discussion, Chongqing learned from the enterprise logistics and transport constraints on industrial development, the railway $ 100 per container / km price negotiations fell through the year 2015 to $ 0.5 / km and meet a few local million units of products to North America, Asia and Europe distribution needs.

Wang Yuquan said, Chongqing Municipality on local entrepreneurs to build communication platform efforts, regularly organized industry chain entrepreneur forum, docking and other industrial cooperation activities downstream, the use of these communication platform in time to help each depth docking enterprise needs, understand each other technical strength, shapeAs "the ability to circle" based on the local industry chain,When you need to quickly understand the willingness to cooperate with each other to achieve cooperation.

Third, improve the supporting collaborative system (Suzhou & Biomedical).

(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, images from the network)

"Biopharmaceutical war has been more than half, Suzhou has win the game." Wang Yuquan said.

In fact, Suzhou foundation in the biopharmaceutical field is not thick. Turning point occurred in 2009. Suzhou Industrial Park in cooperation with famous American Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, local spending $ 1 million a year by the establishment of the International Conference on Cold Spring Harbor Asia platform, has in Suzhou and the surrounding hosted 130 international top level conference sessions, attracting the world from 60 20,000 passengers a number of countries participating scientists, including 22 Nobel Prize winners.

Office will greatly promote the rapid gather high-level personnel and attract new NUS Su Research Institute, Institute for Advanced Study at Oxford University (Suzhou) and other 18 international innovation cooperation platform floor, there are 12,000 foreign-related personnel to engage in Suzhou research and other related work. This not only allows Suzhou Asia-Pacific region has become the largest bio-pharmaceutical industry information distribution center, also required to meet the needs of biopharmaceutical companies and a large number of high-level personnel to quickly docking latest R & D results, local and therefore the emergence of a more than 1,600 biomedical companies. Ecological bio-pharmaceutical industry continues to prosper.

"What the industry needs to build pondering? Be wondering how this ecosystem can flourish. Rockery bonsai ecology is not dead, but a living rainforest, you need to think about how to make the metabolism, how to make the exchange of information, exchange of energy. These things are important. "(This article appeared in" John Doe "as a pseudonym)

Reference:

[1] Wang Yuquan. Eco-technology innovation to build for the future

[2] 2020 Shu 18th century "black technology": the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the steam engine Birth Control Yuan national website [2020-11].

[3] Wang Yuquan: build industrial ecology, we need to cultivate a forest rather than a tree transplanting global outlet [2021-8].

[4] Silicon Valley’s most mysterious Palantir, in the end is a consulting firm or IT company Global outlet. [2021-8]

Weifang Qingzhou: Smart agriculture is injecting new vitality for rural villages

"Xiaofeng, how much is it now?" "The real-time temperature in the shed is 25 ° C", "" On the 2nd front airproof "" No. 2 ventilation mouth has been opened ". On November 15th, in the Poverty Alleviation Project in the Nanzhuwangwang Ecological Park in Qingzhou, Qingzhou City, Yunshi Town, the planting households were using mobile phones to carry out the wind. A variety of operations in the wind. "This artificial intelligence can also forecast the weather in advance. When you encounter the rain, you will close all the wind in advance, eliminate the possibility of rain into the shed. When the temperature in the shed exceeds 30 ° C, you can automatically open all the wind Avoid the temperature too high. "The Demide slid on the phone screen and introduced it. Automatic wind turbine, automatic temperature control, intelligent water fertilizer integrated equipment, intelligent fill light, etc., thereby achieving remote management and intelligent operation, etc. Even if there is no sun, rain and snow weather does not affect the growth of vegetables in the shed. In the greenhouse computer control room, you can see the environmental data in the shed on the screen, including light, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide concentration. "This is our southern Xiao Wang Zhijia agricultural data platform, which is our own research and development, a total of the Internet of Things system, automated central control system, price analysis, planting warning system, ozone water straw returning system and fire eye gold eye disease intelligent identification system six Match. "Sun Guo, secretary of the Party Branch of Nan Xiaowang Village, told reporters.

Around the hardware bottleneck, double the chip power, and the software level is deeply excavated by the chip performance?

If you are inventory in the past two years of industry hot words and social hot words list, the "chip" must be famous.

With the broad practice of AI technology in all walks of life, the application layer is getting higher and higher. Correspondingly, the requirements for deep learning on chip power increases. Information age, everywherechipHowever, the chip is a scarce resource.

There are two ways to work in the industry, one is a custom chip, one is a modification of the model. Reduce the requirements of force by using a small model or compression model. There are highly and disadvantages in two ways, and the custom chip performance is strong but cost, cycle, and the risk is very low; the cost of small models or compression models is low, but the cycle is short, but it will lead to decline in accuracy, it is difficult to high-precision and high performance. A better balance between it.

Excessive redundant calculations in the existing AI calculation and the ability to operate the capacity of the work engine constrain the mining of chip performance. In the case of the imbalance of the chip resources supply and demand, the mainstream practice is a challenge to attack productivity.

There is also a technical team. A family called CoCoPie AI company announced that you can dig existing chip points from the software level by compression and compiling collaborative design technologies, which is expected to make existing chip performance. So we found the person in charge of Cocopie Li Xiaofeng. According to him, CoCopie has already built Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune and other products. These products are able to process artificial intelligence applications in real time without additional additional artificial intelligence hardware.

He told infoq: "Cocopie unique AI software technology stack, solves the development and popular bottleneck problem of end side, which is still unique in the industry. Test data and customer feedback indicate that the comparative advantage with other programs is very obvious. There is a big chance to win in the tide of the end of the equipment wisdom. "

Bypassing the hardware bottleneck, double the chip power, is the software level increase whether the chip performance is feasible? In order to further understand the techniques used by Cocopie, the answer to this problem is obtained, and the InfoQ has interviewed Li Xiaofeng.

Q: What is the specific technical implementation and academic papers support by optimizing compression and compiling collaborative design, solving performance issues, specific technical implementation and academic papers?

Li Xiaofeng: Cocopie’s technical core is the three professors in the founding team. They are people who are very high and unusually diligent, and they are leaders in their respective fields. Among them, Wang Yanzhi professor has focused on the AI ??model algorithm, Ren Bin’s focus on the AI ??model compiled, and Gu Xi Peng ‘s professor’s system engine. These research areas are technically a well complement, which constitutes the iron triangle of AI calculation optimization technology, mutual indispensable, jointly builds the company’s core competitiveness, and is also a kind of sky.

First introduce the basic techniques of the AI ??model optimization. An AI task runs on the device, actually the process of maping the AI ??model to a chip instruction sequence. Compression and compilation are two key steps to perform. The compression optimization of the model itself will be reduced by the compression optimization of the model itself by weight-bearing pruning, weight quantization, reducing the complexity of the model itself. The compiled model is optimized for the compressed model. In this way, the AI ??task is more efficient, and the chip capacity can be made to the other hand.

But compress and compile these two steps, currently do not do very well in the industry. Existing technologies can only compress, or only compile, or although both have, they are designed to isolate each other, there is no good collaborative design, so it is difficult to achieve both effects of reasoning accuracy and ensuring operational efficiency. .

The core of CoCopie technology is to compress and compile two steps of "collaborative design", that is, consider compression and hardware preferences when designing compression, and select the compression model when designing the compiler. Compilation Optimization Method. Corresponding to compression and compiling two steps, we design two components for the Cocopie frame: Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune. Coco-Gen generates an efficient execution code by generating phase associations based on mode-based neural network twigs, and Coco-Tune can significantly shorten the process of compression and training of DNN models.

Cocopie technology is common and can be widely used in various CPUs.GPU, DSP and AI special chips such as NPU, APU, TPU, etc.

Cocopie published a large number of top international conference papers in the relevant field, from the upper AI application optimization technology, AI model design technology, to compiler optimization technology, underlying hardware related optimization technology. In particular, Cocopie’s technical introduction article was published in the Communications of ACM in June this year, which is the flagship publication of the US computer society, which is released with this year’s Tuling Award, which means that the academic community is highly recognized to COCOPIE.

Q: Can the current core product COCO-GEN and COCO-TUNE can be used alone?

Li Xiaofeng: These two products provide key technologies for our AI model optimization, Coco-Gen generates efficient execution code by generating phase-based code-based code generation, Coco-Tune can be significantly shortened by generating phases associated with mode-based neural network twigs with mode-based code; COCO-Tune can significantly shorten DNN model compression and training process.

Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune can be used separately. They constitute the core of the CoCopie toolchain, so it is prioritized. As a bridge that connects the upper layer AI task and the lower hardware, the Cocopie’s product system will continue to add new members.

Q: Solve the chip shortage problem from the software level, is there a similar software technology in the industry?

Li Xiaofeng: The current end Ai technology stack, only Cocopie optimization technology can meet or exceed the performance of the AI ??special chip on the mainstream chip, which is through a large measure of verification. Currently known techniques, or side heavy compression, either focused on compiling, and did not see the techniques of the two collaborative design, which is the patented technology of CoCoPie.

Because although the current mainstream chip has a good potential, we must use this potential, you must convert the AI ??task to a suitable vector calculation by compressing and compiling synergies. Quantity. This is the key to CoCopie’s technical critical.

Q: The ruler is short, the inch has a long, what is the advantages and limitations of this technology?

Li Xiaofeng: The advantage of COCOPIE is that on the one hand, it is possible to make a lot of the AI ??tasks that cannot be operated properly on the end side. On the other hand, it is dedicated to the end side. AI chipThe AI ??task can be run, and now you can run through the mainstream chip.

The implementation of the AI ??task will always be restricted by the chip’s strength. Cocopie technology has always its own limitations, and the liberated AI is not unlimited. In addition, Cocopie technology is currently focused on the AI ??inference tasks, as for the acceleration of special AI training tasks is not our focus.

Q: Cocopie technology can make the chip to increase 3-4 times, allowing the chip effectiveness to increase by 5-10 times, what is the standard? Can you achieve this level for different chips?

Li Xiaofeng: These data are actually measured, and the peer review has passed the customer’s identification. In other words, there is a technical support in technology, and there is a product in practice.

For example, comparison with universal chips and Google TPU-V2: Use Cocopie, VGG-16 Neural Networks in Mobile Equipment Samsung Galaxy S10 is nearly 18 times higher than the TPU-V2, and RESNet-50 has achieved 4.7 times. Efficiency is improved.

On the same SAMSUNG GALAXY S10 platform, both the C3D and S3Ds of behavior recognition have increased by 17 times and 22 times higher than Pytorch Mobile, respectively. Running Mobilenetv3, Cocopie’s speed increases by nearly 3 times and 4 times respectively, respectively, respectively, respectively, respectively.

In addition, the results of the QUALCOMM TREPN POWER POWER PROFILER have been shown that Cocopie is shortened than 9 times higher than the TVM, but the power is only less than 10%. In the work of DNN reasoning acceleration based on AQFP superconductance, our research is also the highest energy efficiency in all hardware devices through a low temperature test.

Q: The effectiveness of the performance will not be empty, what are the requirements for the operation of this software to the hardware environment?

Li Xiaofeng: Yes. Cocopie technology is not high, the mainstream chip can be satisfied, in particular, the chip requires vector computing power, such as the Neon instruction set, Intel’s SSE, AVX instruction set, RISC-V vector extension, etc. They are all current CPUs, GPU and APU / NPUs are not more useful. Of course, if there is no vector computing power, Cocopie’s technology can still work, but will be affected.

Q: What is the main challenge encountered during the technology practice?

Li Xiaofeng: The main challenge encountered in practice in practice is that our current product system is not very perfect, and customers’ needs are also a variety of different, and the specific service methods are very different. Therefore, we have not yet carried out large-scale business. Promotion, mainly for some key areas, key customers, such as representative mainstream chip providers, equipment providers, software service providers, etc., selectively provide services in accordance with our product development strategy. We will carry out this process, and we will work together with a variety of customer needs and continuously explore the best product service system.

Q: Is this technology currently have a practical floor case?

Li Xiaofeng: There are still more than a dozen people in collaborative customers. These customers have multiple fields, such as Tencent, Drop, a famous chip platform provider, a famous mobile phone manufacturer, and the Ministry of Communications, the world-renowned service provider Cognizant. Wait.

Q: The mainstream processor is a more popular solicity of real-time manual intelligence. Do you agree with this view?

Li Xiaofeng: Yes. For end-side devices, the mainstream processor is a more favorable solution to real-time manual intelligence.

1. From the functional say, the end side device resource is limited, the application scenario is killed, while the dedicated AI processor function is relatively curing, and the abnormal flexible functional demand for the end side has a large challenge. Mainstream processors can handle AI issues through software technology, of course, there is no need to have another branch.

2. From the technical statement, the practice of solving the special chip of the AI ??problem is actually increasing the processing capabilities of vector computing, improves memory access efficiency, and some are tensile calculation units. As mentioned earlier, the current mainstream chip is actually a vector computing unit. These vector computing units may be weak than the dedicated tensile processing chip, but the current AI task is generally sufficient, provided that there must be excellent model compression and compilation tools, able to make AI tasks through a delicate design Convert to a suitable vector calculation and control the overall calculation.

3, from the cost In addition to purchasing the cost of the AI ??chip itself, there are some recessive costs. Many chips will cause redesign of PCB, heat dissipation, and the like, and the package is also an extra cost. Many devices such as smart headphones, micro medical devices, etc. are sensitive to these factors.

4. It is important to emphasize that Cocopie’s technology does not exclude special AI chips. As a full stack of AI, Cocopie also supports the AI ??processor to allow AI processors to play a greater performance. Therefore, we also have an important role in a specific application area.

Q: Is Cocopie a product transition time?

Li Xiaofeng: Only, because of the generalization of the terminal AI, CoCopie is the leader of the advanced technology in this field, and we believe that its future development space is very large. We have a complete set of product development strategies in our inside, and future product forms will be different, but core technology is inherent.

In addition, it is assumed that there is a popularity of the ai-specific chip to a day, nor does it adversely affect the living space of COCOPIE. First of all, the AI ??special chip will never be more popular than the general-purpose chip. For universal chips that can be done well, it may still be more effective in universal chips; secondly, the AI ??chip has developed even if it is developed. Enhance the optimization technology. Our technology will make the AI ??chip’s ability to further improve. In fact, universal chips are the same, such as CPU or GPU, no matter how cheap, high performance, still require high performance compiler support, such as LLVM or NVCC, etc.

In a long time, the development of AI technology stacks will only get more and more demand for Cocopie software technology, just like mobile SOC chips, the function is not more and more simple, but more powerful, 8 Nuclear phones are common, and the requirements for software technology are getting higher and higher. In fact, AI calculates the requirements for integration to exceed the development speed of the AI ??hardware capabilities. According to the research report of the US MIT University, AI calculations have been developed in recent years, the development is 700 times every two years. This development speed is only impossible to meet the requirements of hardware capabilities, and must be better in software technology.

Q: How do you think about today’s popular big model technology?

Li Xiaofeng: The big model often achieves higher AI capabilities in the case of training data. This is the way to explore unknown world exploration. This is like a high-energy physics community, in order to make new discovery, it continuously constructs a higher energy of particle crash. However, this thing is also needed to see from two aspects. If you pursue a larger model, the amount of training data, training time, integration support, energy consumption, etc. are increasing, and the marginal benefits will be getting smaller and smaller. This trend is obviously unsustainable. It may only be practiced in the work of individual significant challenges in the future.

Here is a number on the big model gain, and the RESNET is a famous computer visual model released in 2015. The improved version of this model is called ResNext, which was advent in 2017. Compared with RESNET, the computing resources required by ResNext (measured with total floating point calculations), but accuracy is only 0.5%.

Give a number on carbon emissions, according to the Report of Forbes Magazine, since the depth study has developed in 2012, the calculation resources needed to generate first-class artificial intelligence models, an average of 3.4 months This means that the energy required to train the AI ??model has increased by 300,000 times from 2012 to 2018.

If you do a contrast, the ability to learn in deep learning is still a big gap even if you compare with a baby, let alone compare with the brain of adults. And our adult brain operation, only 20 watts of energy, which can only supply a bulb.

We obviously impossible only by expanding the model to improve the machine’s intelligence, and the academic circles are constantly exploring new methods.

Q: Can you talk about the basic software industry that is currently being floating? Simply talk about your judgment on the chip industry?

Li Xiaofeng: The importance of basic software is getting bigger and bigger. There are two reasons, one is that the technology has developed very quickly in recent years, and the basic software has actual needs, and it is necessary for the future; the other is that a large number of high-quality engineers have been cultivated.

The chip industry will continue to flourish. The development trend of science and technology is to continuously penetrate the digital world into all aspects of the physical world, while the simultaneization is the constant implantation of the chip in various equipment. The core means of intelligent in the upper wave of equipment is to implant the chip on the device, and the core means of running applications, and this wave of intelligent core means is to run deep neural networks on the equipment, which is a great trend of vastness. This is also the fundamental opportunity of CoCopie.

Li Xiaofeng told InfoQ, Cocopie’s technology leading advantages have been at least a few years, enough to compete in a computer field. Cocopie technology is not to solve the problem of chip shortage, but to achieve the generalization of the AI ??task, it is just a matter of happening, which is a by-product of CoCopie technology capabilities.

In Li Xiaofeng, in the face of complex and diverse scenes and terminals, the existing technical level cannot fully exert the ability of the mainstream chip, so there is a Cocopie’s development space. It can be confirmed that the development of Cocopie provides a new idea to put the chip capability "things".

Afghanistan Taliban highlights today: US war in Afghanistan a ‘strategic failure’, says top American general

Afghanistan Taliban Crisis LIVE Updates: Chairman of US Joint Chief of Staff General Mark Milley called the US’ war in Afghanistan “a strategic failure” in front of the members of the Senate Armed Services Committee on Tuesday. “The enemy is in charge in Kabul, there’s no way else to describe that,” he said.

Along with Milley, US Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin and Gen Frank McKenzie, Commander of US Central Command, told the Committee that the Pentagon had recommended US President Biden about the need to keep 2,500 American troops in Afghanistan post withdrawal, to which he disagreed. However, the White House defended the decision, acknowledging that it was a split recommendation from Biden’s advisors and generals.

In other news, the Afghanistan Civil Aviation Authority under the new Taliban regime has written to India’s Directorate General of Civil Aviation seeking resumption of flights operated by its airlines Kam Air and Ariana Afghan Airline to and from Delhi. DGCA chief said that the Ministry of Civil Aviation will take a call on the matter as this was a policy issue.