Next generation tumor immunization technology: Single-cell analysis and artificial intelligence from immunohistogenesis

Foreword

The huge progress of immunotherapy has changed the model of cancer treatment, however, in view of only a few patients have responding to the blocked the immunogenic examination and other immunotherapy strategies, more new technologies need to be used to decipher the micro-micro-microenvironment of tumor cells and tumors (TME The complex interaction between the ingredients.

Tumor immunougueology refers to a comprehensive study of TME using multi-synthetic data using immunologically, immunological proteomics, immunogenic information, etc. reflects tumor immunization state, depending on the rapid development of next-generation sequencing technology. The high-throughput genome and transcriptum data can be used to calculate the abundance of immunocytes and predict tumor antigens, however, due to batch sequencing represents the average characteristics of heterogeneous cell populations, different cell subtypes cannot be distinguished. Single-cell-based technology can better analyze TME through accurate immune cell subpopulations and spatial structures. In addition, the depth learning model based on radiographics and digital pathology has a large extent to the study of tumor immunity, which is well shown in predicting immunotherapy response. The progress and breakthroughs of these new technologies have far-reaching significance for cancer treatment.

Tumor immunization micro environment

In the past few years, the research progress of tumor immunity has made us fundamentally changed the understanding of tumors. The definition of tumors also evolved from a simple tumor cell to a complex organ pattern structure, consisting of tumor cells, immunocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and other matrix cells. Various cells and components near tumors, such as structural, such as immunofuncing cells, blood vessels, extracellular matrices, etc., also known as tumor immunochemical, and have become one of the topics of tumors. TME has been proven to play a decisive role in cancer, tumor progression, metastasis and recurrence.

TME includes extremely diverse immune cells, including T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killing (NK) cells, macrophages, dendritic cells (DC), granulocytes and mycinoid inhibitory cells (MDSCs) Wait. Typically, T cells, B cells, NK cells and macrophages help inhibit tumor growth, while MDSC and regulatory T cells (Treg) tend to inhibit anti-tumor immunity. However, existing studies have confirmed that in view of the complex interaction with tumor cells, the specific role of immune cells may have changed, and even completely opposite.

In summary, various immune cell types, even different functional conditions of specific immune cell types may have an opposite effect against tumor immunity. Therefore, this requires the most advanced bioinformatics techniques to minimize the immunological characteristics of tumors to the greatest extent, and provide more information to enhance our understanding of tumor immunity.

Immune genomics in NGS era

Over the past twenty years, NGS, including all genome sequencing (WGS), full exon group sequencing (WES), and RNA sequencing (RNA SEQ) has been successfully developed and applied to acquire human genome information. NGS produces high-throughput genome and transcriptional data to lay the foundation for the study of multi-step immune responses.

Immune cells in TME

TME consists of a variety of immunocytes, for quantification of tumor immunocytocyte components, conventional methods, such as flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), due to its high cost and low tissue availability, is not applicable to large scale analysis. With the rapid development of NGS, we can estimate the abundance of dozens of immune cell types through NGS data, which are also proven to be reliable. These analyzes are mainly DNA and RNA sequencing, especially the latter. Regarding RNA sequence data, the principle of calculation methods is mainly divided into gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and inverse volume.

Typically, the representative algorithm based on GSEA includes Estimate, XCell, and MCP counts. A common feature of a GSEA-based approach is to establish specific genomic sets for each of the immune cell subsets of interest. The inverse volume of the cellular component is the reverse process of cell subtype convolution in a body tissue based on gene expression characteristics. Tools based on reverse volume include Decornaseq, Pert, Cibersort, Timer, EPIC, QuantiseQ and Deconf.

Identification of tumor antigens

Body cell DNA mutation, including mononucleotide variation (SNV) and insertion and deletion (INDEL), is the main source of abnormal antigen. Currently, the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) is the industry standard of SNV and Indel by analyzing WES, WGS and RNA sequence data. It is also expanded to encompass copy number variation (CNVS) and structural variation (SVS).

Furthermore, the abnormal peptide needs to be combined with HLA to assist the T cell receptor (TCR) to initiate an immune response. The prediction of HLA is essential to identify tumor antigens. HLA Miner and SEQ2HLA are two early tools for HLA typing from NGS data, Four, six and eight-bit resolutions in PHLAT, HLAREPORTER, SNP2HLA, HLA-HD, Optype, and HLA-VBSEQ in different cancers. The performance is quite good. In these tools, Polysolver is one of the recognized standard tools currently using low coverage WES data.

In addition to identifying an abnormal peptide and HLA type, antigen MHC binding pro and is the next focus of tumor antigen prediction. Many peptide-MHC-I (PMHC-I) affinity prediction tools are based on artificial neural network (ANN) training methods and position specific score matrices (PSSM), as currently widely used tools NetMHC and NetMHCPAN. Due to the diversity of MHCII binding peptide and "openness" of the binding zone, predicting PMHC II affinity is more challenging, the number of PMHC II affinity prediction methods is far less than PMHC-I.

Single cell age immunohistology

Although the study of tumor immunity is used to study NGS technology to greatly promote the development of tumors, batch sequencing may cause signals to be diluted below the detection limit and mask the reaction of individual cells. This may hide many important biological phenomena. Until recently, the technical breakthrough of single cell-related methods thoroughly changed our understanding of tumor immunity, and transitioned from regional levels from regional levels to a single cell level.

Multi-color flow cytometry

Multi-parameter analysis is functional and physically distinguished by different immune cell subsets. In addition, with the advancement of technology, the instrument design of more parameters can be measured, such as 30 parameters and 50 parameter flow cytometry. However, due to the lower parameter accuracy, or higher precision measuring parameters, especially due to overlap between fluorescent dye emission spectroscopy, these disadvantages limit the application of multi-color flow cytometry to a certain extent And further development.

Matrix flow cytometry

The mass spectrometry is a new innovation in the field, also known as flight time (CYTOF), combined with streaming cytometry with mass spectrometry. Compared to conventional flow cytometry, mass spectrometry is not a fluorom antibody with metal isotope, and then quantifies the signal using the flight time detector, the detector detects at least 40 parameters, and avoids spectral overlap. Cytof has been confirmed to be a precise tumor tissue high-dimensional analysis method for explorating immunoassays and biomarkers found.

Although in theory, mass spectrometry flow cytometry allows us to detect up to 100 parameters per cell, but the processing speed and flux are limited by ion flight. After atomization and ionization, the cells are completely destroyed during the pretreatment, resulting in the end of subsequent cell classification. In addition, Cytof may not be appropriate for the measurement of certain low expression molecular features.

Spectral flow cytometry

Spectrum flow cytometry is another latest technological advancement that promotes traditional flow cytometry. Unlike the mass spectrometer, spectral flow cytometry is still labeled antibodies with fluorescent dye, but a new detector with a dispersion optical and measuring full emission spectrum replaces conventional optical and detectors. Based on the same principle, traditional flow cytometry and spectral flow cytometry maintain considerable compatibility, particularly in terms of commercial antibodies, but can better eliminate confusion factors, such as spectral overlap to improve efficiency . With the development of compensation technology, spectral flow cytometry may replace multi-color flow cytometry.

Single cell RNA sequencing

Based on streaming cytometry combines a specific label with the corresponding cell subgroup and identifies the label, indicating that the target must be determined before the sample collection, and the initial goal limits the information obtained from these technologies, only these Technologies find "known unknown".

The emergence of single cell sequencing technology pushes a single cell sequence to a new height. Single cells can be sequenced using a standard NGS protocol for predetermined targets such as streaming cytometry.

At present, SCRNA-SEQ applications are more mature than other methods, and the re-tumor immunotherapeutic field provides us with a lot of very valuable discovery and revelation. However, the technical noise produced by trace substance is still the most significant challenge. How to separate a single cell and maintain its bioactivity, how to solve the enlarged huge technical noise and improve sensitivity, how to get the highest number of measurable genes at the lowest price, how to analyze data more effectively, these are greatly improved single cells The threshold for sequencing limits its wide application.

Immunohistology and artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence in tumor immunization studies mainly involve the following aspects: (1) Alleviation of immunological infiltration on artificial identification of pathological sections; (2) Provide an alternative technology to identify immune cells that are difficult to identify in naked eye The subpopulation and spatial structure; (3) Provides a non-invasive method to predict the TME characteristics of a particular patient and the reaction of immunotherapy.

Tumor antigen prediction based on deep learning method

The first step in deciphering the tumor antigen is to predict the abnormal peptide. In addition to identifying a variety of algorithms of SNV, the recently designed CN learning tool is also designed to detect CNV and exhibit good performance. About HLA profiles, Bulik et al. Generated a large integrated data set, including various types of cancer tissue HLA types and HLA peptides, which announced data that can be used to train intact mass spectrum depth learning model EDGEs, which is already non-small Verification is obtained in patients with cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, two very promising depth learning methods Maria and MixMHC2PRED have recently been developed, which greatly increases MHC-II prediction accuracy.

Application of radiology in tumor immunity

With the development of artificial intelligence in medical imaging, the image is not just a picture, but a large-scale digital data, the process of analyzing the imaging data using AI technology is the radiographic. Radiological techniques applied to tumor immunization are mainly used to identify biomarkers reflecting immunoff and predict the therapeutic response of ICB treated patients.

Calculation of tumor immunity

AI, or so-called digital pathology, by calculating analysis, providing new insights for exploring the interaction between immune cells and tumor cells and the key behavior of cancer biology.

Similar to radiology, digital patients combine deep learning from the image to excavate the invisible information, so that we can understand TME in cell or molecular level. Digital pathology may be a promising method for studying the relationship between TME structure and cancer biology and treatment.

Application of immunohistology in tumor immunotherapy

Identifying ICB biomarkers for patient layers

As a target of ICB, the PD-L1 expression level detected by IHC is the first predictive biomarker, but some clinical trials have shown that ICB has only slight effect on some PD-L1 high expression patients, and ICB also Will respond to PD-L1 low expression patients. Therefore, other biomarkers are urgently needed to fill this gap.

In 2014, the researchers were linked to the clinical survival rate of tumor mutation (TMB) with patients who were treated with CTLA-4 inhibitors by WES. Subsequently, other retrospective studies also prove that high TMB is related to lasting clinical benefits. Regarding the method used to evaluate TMB, due to the high cost and complexity of WES, the FDA approves two alternative NGS platforms, which is FoundationOndongOne CDX (F1CDX) and MSKCC operable cancer target integrated mutant (MSK-IMPACT), and passed Prospective study of multiple cancers has been verified.

On the other hand, immune cell infiltration, especially TIL, a key role in immune response. In order to find more desirable treatment and prognosis biomarkers, single-cell sequencing is used to identify more immune cells. TCF7 + memory T cells have been found to be related to clinical improvement in patients with melanoma after anti-PD1 treatment, while stem cell-like TCF1 + PD1 + T cells have been confirmed, which contributes to tumor control in ICB treatment. Thorbing T cell subpopulations and functional conditions associated with treatment and prognosis are determined by single-cell sequencing techniques.

Prediction of new antigen in ACT treatment

Overpounding Cell Therapy (ACT) is re-transferred to the patient by transgene or amplified autologous or allogeneic T cells to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Immunoatology is mainly used to identify the ideal tumor antigen in ACT treatment.

At present, the new antigen-specific TCR-T cell has not yet entered the clinical application. However, it is gratifying that some case reports show the neat colorectal cancer, breast cancer and cholangiocarcinoma patients with immunohistology, T cell recognition tumor new antigen Effectiveness. TRAN et al. WGS on the sample of metastatic cholangiocarcinoma patients, determined 26 species of cell mutation. The series microchrome composed of mutant genes was transcribed and transfected into autologous APC, and then the new antigen was presented with TIL of APC and the patient’s source of TIL, and finally identified antigen-specific CD4 + VB22 + T cell clones and induced epithelial cancer.

The conventional autologous APC and T cell co-cultured new antigen selection is limited due to its low flux, high cost and time consuming characteristics. In order to eliminate these obstacles, more high-throughput immunogenic new antigen detection techniques were developed. Li et al. Established a Trogocytosis-based platform where the TCR and PMHC were combined, the surface marker protein was transferred from the APC to T cells. Therefore, the ideal new antigen can be identified by analyzing labeling positive cells. In the future, these emerging immunologies will achieve high-throughput antigen selection.

Choose a new antigen for individual tumor vaccines

The immunohistological method has been widely used in vaccine development in clinical studies. In general, a new antigen for generating a personalized vaccine is identified by analyzing a tumor and normal tissue WES and RNA sequences, and is identified by an algorithm (such as NetMHCPAN).

Similar to ACT, key parameters for tumor vaccine development are ideal for new antigen identification. In order to improve the accuracy of the new antigen prediction and the new epitope selection of the immunogenicity, immunohistology technology has made unremitting efforts in these respects. In a recent study, Wells et al. Compiled all new antigen predictions and selection methods and provided a new candidate measurement pipe, including 14 immunogenic characteristics of MHC presence and T cell recognition. This study laid a solid foundation for improving the efficacy of tumor vaccine and the adverse cell therapy.

summary

In recent years, with the huge leap of emerging technologies in the field of immunohma, we can now analyze tumor immunity before.

In the bulk sequencing era, we can better explore the individual infiltration model of tumor immunocytes, and the prediction of abnormal peptides, HLA-based and tumor antigen MHC binding pro-and predictions, using immunogenics, predicting tumor antigens have been in front of it. It proves its reliable effect in clinical research.

In addition, with the development of single-cell immune related technologies, from multi-color flow cytometry to CYTOF, single-cell tumor immunization maps help us to classify the immune cell subtracitions to decide the TME component. The emergence of artificial intelligence also provides a new direction for the development of immunohistology.

With the booming of immunohistology, sustainable development needs several issues. First, although many methods of quality control and improvement algorithm have been implemented, the effectiveness of these technologies remains to be improved. Especially in tumor antigen prediction, single cell sequencing and space resolving transcriptional groups, technical noise and mixing factors have hindered subsequent analysis. Second, we look forward to the more cost-effective, easier to obtain and more automated techniques, thoroughly change the development of the discipline. Third, we also expect researchers to make full use of prior art to explore tumor immunity and promote clinical transformation.

Although there is still a lot of work to do, the immunohistology is likely to dominate the future in the future, and its clinical value will undoubtedly promote the development of the subject in the field of immunohistology, single cells and artificial intelligence.

references:

1.Technological Advances in Cancer Immunity: from Immunogenomics to Single-Cell Analysis and Artificial Intelligence. SignalTransduct Target Her. 2021; 6: 312.

[Heart News] Artificial intelligence ECG and clinical risk factors forecast atrial fibrillation

Artificial Intelligence (AI) Analysis 12 Level ECG (ECGS) helps effectively evaluate the risk of trembling (AF). However, except for clinical risk factors, it is not clear whether artificial intelligence provides meaning and further improvement of accurate prediction of AF.

The study was conducted by 12 lead electrocardiograms for long-term primary health care patients (MGH) in Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), which was inferred by convolutional neural network ("ECG-AI"). Subsequently, three Cox proportional risk models were constructed, each model included: a) ECG-AI 5-year room fuse, b) CHARGE-AF clinical risk score, and C) ECG-AI and Charge-AF rating ("CHAI"). The researchers evaluate model performance by calculating judgment (under the area of ??ROC curve, AUROC) and calibration in an internal test set and two external test sets (Brigham and Women’s Hospital and British Bioconbound). The model is re-calibrated in the British Biological Bank, and the risk of 2 years of room tribin is estimated. The most significant electrocardiogram characteristics of ECG-AI risk predictions were studied by significant mapping, and the correlation between ECG-AI and Charge-AF linear prediction factors were evaluated.

The training set includes 4,577 (age 55 ± 17 years old, 53% women, 2171 AF incidents), including 83,162 people (age 59 ± 13 years old, 56% women, 2424 AF events). CHARGE-AF (MGH 0.802, 95% Ci 0.767-0.752, 95% Ci 0.741-0.752, 95% Ci 0.741-0.763; UK Biobank 0.732, 95% Ci 0.704-0.759) and ECG-Ai (MGH 0.823, 95% Ci 0.790- 0.856; BWH 0.747, 95% Ci 0.736-0.759; UK BIOBANK 0.705, 95% CI 0.673-0.737) Auroc comparison. The CH-AI group Auroc has the highest: MGH 0.838, 95% Ci 0.807-0.869; BWH 0.777, 95% Ci 0.766-0.788; UK BIOBANK 0.746, 95% CI 0.716-0.776). ECG-AI (MGH 0.0212; BWH 0.0129; UK Biobank 0.0035) and CH-Ai (MGH 0.012; BWH 0.0108; UK BIOBANK 0.0001) Calibration error. In significant analysis, the effect of electrocardiogram P wave on artificial intelligence model predictions is the largest. ECG-AI and Charge-AF linear predictors (Pearson R MGH 0.61, BWH 0.66, UK BIOBANK 0.41).

Table 1 Baseline Information

This study developed a depth learning model ECG-AI, using 12 lead electrocardiogram data precisely predicts the time of the atrial fibrillation. ECG-Ai uses approximately 100,000 electrocardiogram training from more than 40,000 patients from the primary health queue. CH-AI is a model of ECG-AI and Charge-AF, compared with Charge-Af, in patients with more than 80000 clinical features, a large number of clinical features of more than 80000 cases, in multiple prognostic model indicators The effect is better. ECG-AI evaluates the risk of CHARGE-AF rating containing 11 components. In addition, the study found that ECG-AI and CHARGE-AF are highly correlated, indicating that ECG-AI can largely reflect the ECG performance of the determined atrial fibrillation clinical hazardous factor. The results show that the clinical risk signal based on deep learning provides similar predictive utility, ECG-AI and clinical risk factors complement each other, enhance risk prediction skills.

Table 2 Test Concentrated atrial fuse

The Attia team has developed a depth learning model that is 80% for the model of atrial fibrillation state classification of diagnosis room fibrillation and sinus rhythm. Raghunath et al. Subsequently developed a neural network that utilizes 12 lead-optic maps to predict atrial fibrillation event. In one year, the atrial fibrillation recognition capacity is good, in subset analysis, compared with Charge-Af, performance is better. The study made substantial supplements in the aforementioned work, introduced a deep learning model, explicitly incorporating the survival time, and conducted strict epidemiological surveys, including quantitative errors, calibration, re-classification and extensive external validation. However, due to the data is not applicable, the study cannot be directly compared to the aforementioned model.

The results show that when using a strict epidemiological index to assess, the depth learning model uses an electrocardiogram to assess the risk of atrial fibrillation is reliable and effective. Specifically, the study evaluated ECG-AI of the test set consisting of independent individuals from: a) the same institution with the training set, b) independent institutions in the same medical network, c) from atrial fibrillation risk Lower different region forward-looking research queues. With the previous research results, ECG-Ai is best in the closest population closest to the training set, and the difference in different samples is small, highlighting the importance of extensive external verification in assessing clinical utility. In the end, researchers suspect that the differences in identification ability may differ from different characteristics (eg, age, baseline atrial risks), and thus the specific electrocardiogram characteristics are different from the relevance between the risks of the long-term atrial fibrillation.

This study is of great significance to the relationship between depth study of ECG hazardous signals and traditional atrial fibrillation clinical risk factors. First, the clinical hazardous factors can be performed on an electrocardiogram in a perceived manner in the deep learning model. Specifically, the ECG-AI probability and the Charge-AF score have moderate correlations in each test. In addition, the characteristics map and median waveform analysis have found that ECG-Ai probability is largely influenced by atrial decoder and a replenishment period, and the atrial structure and function may be affected by chronic diseases such as age and hypertension.

Second, the depth learning model seems to extract a risk factor complementary to clinical hazardous factors. CH-AI is a combination of CHARGE-AF and ECG-AI, which always shows better AF identification, calibration, and re-classification. This shows that the predicted effect of the model combined with the clinical risk information and the artificial intelligent veneer risk is significantly improved compared to any of the methods alone. Similarly, atrial fibrillation is significantly higher based on the risk of ECG-AI and Charge-Af, based on the use of two models alone. In addition, the predictive differences in CH-AI and Charge-AF are more significant over time, which may be related to the time accumulation effect of clinical risk factors, while the authentication of ECG-Ai remains relatively unchanged, prompting an electrocardiogram-based atrial fibrillation Risk predictions can contribute the most in short-term predictions.

The design background is explained below. First, the researchers conduct ECG-Ai training for individuals who conduct at least one ECG clinical examination. At the same time, the patient baseline information includes each component of the charge-AF rating. These two requirements have introduced potential selection bias. However, the study included EHR samples accepted longitudinal primary care may reduce bias, and the research model continues to distinguish AF in a completely independent forward-looking queue study. Second, the research training set represents an individual of a single mechanism. Training for larger samples in multiple institutions helps to generate more accurate and more universal models. Third, due to the limited follow-up of British bio-bank, the evaluation time window is 2 years, while MGH and BWH are five years.

Fourth, ECG-AI is a black box model. However, compared with the previous AF prediction model, the study uses a significant mapping and median waveform analysis, and the biological reasonable electrocardiogram changes (for example, P-wave duration prolong) have the greatest impact on the AF risk assessment. Fifth, 5 years of predictive window may represent the risk of atrial fibrillation, but it cannot be intervened immediately. However, the study also has a consistent difference in a shorter time window. It is not yet excluded that ECG-AI recognizes the previously have unexposed atrial vibration. Sixth, ECG-AI and CH-AI need to recalibrate in Biobio Bioconbanks. It is necessary to recalibrate when replacing the prognostic model. It has been very accurately estimated by simple recalibration of the incidence of the atrial fibrillation of BBBs. Tip The initial calibration error can be completely attributed to the incidence of baseline atrial fibrillation in the British branch, approximately one-third of MGH and BWH. In addition, CH-Ai has a better calibration effect than Charge-Af, although Charge-AF has a similar recalibration in Bio Biological Bank.

Figure 1 Research overview

Figure 2 identification of atrial fibrillation

Figure 3 Correction of atrial fibrillation

Figure 4 In accordance with predicted risk stratified atrial fuse

Figure 5 ECG-AI depth learning model two visual behavior forms

In summary, in three independent test sets of more than 80,000 people, ECG-AI (a depth learning model using 12 lead electrocardiogram clearly predicts the time of AF occurrence time) is compared to Charge-AF clinical risk score containing 11 components. Provide a 5-year AF risk forecast similar to the effect. The CH-A model combines Charge-Af and ECG-AI to identify, calibrate, and re-categorize more accurately. Based on the depth learning ECG’s atrial risoting assessment has the potential for wide application, it can provide accurate and promotion of atrial fuser risk assessment within a few years of ECG inspection.

references:

Khurshid Shaan, Friedman Samuel, Reeder ChristoPher, et al. Electrocardiogram-based deep Learning and Clinical Risk Fabrtors to Predict Atries, 2021, In Press.

Weifang Qingzhou: Smart agriculture is injecting new vitality for rural villages

"Xiaofeng, how much is it now?" "The real-time temperature in the shed is 25 ° C", "" On the 2nd front airproof "" No. 2 ventilation mouth has been opened ". On November 15th, in the Poverty Alleviation Project in the Nanzhuwangwang Ecological Park in Qingzhou, Qingzhou City, Yunshi Town, the planting households were using mobile phones to carry out the wind. A variety of operations in the wind. "This artificial intelligence can also forecast the weather in advance. When you encounter the rain, you will close all the wind in advance, eliminate the possibility of rain into the shed. When the temperature in the shed exceeds 30 ° C, you can automatically open all the wind Avoid the temperature too high. "The Demide slid on the phone screen and introduced it. Automatic wind turbine, automatic temperature control, intelligent water fertilizer integrated equipment, intelligent fill light, etc., thereby achieving remote management and intelligent operation, etc. Even if there is no sun, rain and snow weather does not affect the growth of vegetables in the shed. In the greenhouse computer control room, you can see the environmental data in the shed on the screen, including light, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide concentration. "This is our southern Xiao Wang Zhijia agricultural data platform, which is our own research and development, a total of the Internet of Things system, automated central control system, price analysis, planting warning system, ozone water straw returning system and fire eye gold eye disease intelligent identification system six Match. "Sun Guo, secretary of the Party Branch of Nan Xiaowang Village, told reporters.

Yuancai "new track" broke out! 8 "virtual people" top faucet, relieved!

The Yuan Universe is the next generation of Internet revolutionary interactions. The Yuan Universe is parallel to the real world, providing an open virtual world of games, shopping, social immersion experiences. In the stage of moving Internet traffic, the number of users is weak, and the Yuan Universe is the current focus of the technology company.

Today, the speculation of the Yuan universe, and pushing up new, the virtual man became the top theme today. It is estimated that many stockings are foggy, what is "virtual person"?

The virtual person is actually a virtual person with digital shape. If it is difficult to understand, it can also be seen as a similar Taobao, the smart customer service in the Jingdong background, but only in the video manner. This year, Double Eleven Shopping Festival, quickly realize the virtual anchor "Xiaofang" live band; Tencent cloud launched a new intelligent product matrix based on new generation multi-modal interaction technology, Tsinghua University Virtual Student, Tsinghua University, Tsinghua University Ice is also a beautiful virtual person.

From the industry market space, the data shows that the size of China’s virtual idol core market is 3.46 billion yuan, which is expected to reach 6220 million yuan in 2021; 2020 virtual idol drive the surrounding market size of 64.56 billion yuan, expected to be 1074.9 in 2021 100 million yuan.
The city’s universe is still far away, some is somewhat deficient, but virtual human development has matured, and it is also important to become an important tissue part of the Yuancosian.
Regardless of the Yuanyuan or the virtual person, it is currently the concept of the concept. The hype is the future imagination, and the performance is still far away. The speculation of the Yuan Universe has spread from the game that has just started, which is a multi-segment area, which is a common phenomenon of super subject. New energy vehicles are also spreading from the initial lithium ore, lithium battery, upstream materials to components and chips.

8 "virtual people" top faucet

1, blue cursor

Beijing Blue Cursor Data Technology Co., Ltd. is a public relations consulting service and advertising service. The core business is to provide brand management services and advertising design, production, proxy, release business, and to undertake exhibitions. In 2019, the company’s founding strength continued to obtain the industry height recognition, and won the golden offer the audience award, the IN2 Sabre Awards Gold Award, Times Golden Image Award Best Visual Design, etc. More than 100 innovation top awards.

2, Sichuan Media

The main business of Sichuan News Net Media (Group) Co., Ltd. is a new media integrated marketing, mobile information service, interactive TV business. The company’s main products and services are publicity and promotion services, online public opinion services, advertising agency operations, technical services, mobile news information dissemination, mobile phone report value-added services. The company’s "Spicy Community" has also been rated as a "China Internet Site Brand Column (Channel) recommended by the State Council Information Office and China Internet Association.

3, beautiful culture

Msusheng Cultural Creative Co., Ltd. is closely related to the cultural industry and is committed to the cultural industry related business. Since the company’s listing, based on the original animation derivatives, the company focuses on the upstream business, improve the industrial chain, in the cultural industry chain, including anime, games, film and television, derivatives, etc., the strategic layout, and implement the transformation and upgrading, preliminary The construction of the cultural ecotrial circle of "Self-owned IP + Content Production + Content Distribution and Operation + New Media Operation + Derived Development Design + Online Retail Channel". The company’s products mainly include services such as IP derivatives, animation, games, film and television products and operations such as light game service platform business.

4, Mango Super Media

The main business of Mango Super Media Co., Ltd. is mainly composed of three parts of the new media platform operation, new media interactive content production and media retail.

5, Jiecheng Shares

Beijing Jiecheng Century Technology Co., Ltd. is a professional engage in new media copyright operations, film and television content production and distribution, audio and video technology services and digital education cloud platform construction. The company’s main products include media asset management system solutions, high standard cleaning, non-editing network solutions, all-stage multi-heterogeneous network solutions and all-Taiwan unified monitoring and monitoring solutions.

6, Fangzhi Technology

Shenzhen Fangzhi Technology Co., Ltd. is mainly engaged in research and development and sales of primary and secondary school synchronous education software and providing online online services. With the experience of information technology accumulated for many years, the deep understanding of teaching, management, discipline in-depth integration and education teaching needs, the use of mobile interconnection, cloud computing, big data, artificial intelligence, etc., established advanced resource management operation platform, effective Teaching methods and information technology organically combined.

7, Zhen Electronics

The main business of Shen Si Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. is the identity certification business, industry deep-cultivation business (financial industry, security industry, medical industry), artificial intelligence business (Shen Siyun, single AI products, and AI cloud service solution). The company’s main products are ID card reading equipment, mobile exhibition industry, silver medicine self-service, computer vision, convenient payment. The company has won the second prize of "Chuangke China" SME Competition, the company’s wisdom catering enters the 2019 enterprise canteen information service service national TOP10, company with "Smart Business Service Robot Project" finalists in China New generation of artificial intelligence industry innovation Key task potential units.

8, Wanxing Technology

Wanxing Technology Group Co., Ltd. continues to focus on video creative software business, actively promoting the technological innovation and quality of drawing creativity, document ideas and utilities, quickly responding to market demand, strengthening mobile service layouts, and constantly exploring new products. The company’s main products include digital creative products (video creative software, drawing creative software, document creative software, utility software), and the company continues to obtain "national planning layout" certification in the "National Planning Layout" certification.

Shanghai: Strengthening Digital Infrastructure Planning and Layout Construction A New Generation Communication Network, Data Center, Artificial Intelligence Platform and other major infrastructure

Shanghai Municipal People’s Congress Standing Committee: "Shanghai Data Ordinance" has been passed on November 25, 2021, was appointed on November 25, 2021, from Shanghai’s 15th People’s Congress.From now on.Strengthen the digital infrastructure planning and layout, improve the service capabilities of e-government clouds, e-government external networks, build a new generation of communication networks, data centers, artificial intelligence platforms, etc., establish digital numbers, storage, calculation, and safetyInfrastructure system.Support Pudong New Area to strengthen data transactions related to digital trust system construction, innovation integration big data, block chain, zero trust and other technologies, build digital trust infrastructure to ensure trusted data trading services.

Around the hardware bottleneck, double the chip power, and the software level is deeply excavated by the chip performance?

If you are inventory in the past two years of industry hot words and social hot words list, the "chip" must be famous.

With the broad practice of AI technology in all walks of life, the application layer is getting higher and higher. Correspondingly, the requirements for deep learning on chip power increases. Information age, everywherechipHowever, the chip is a scarce resource.

There are two ways to work in the industry, one is a custom chip, one is a modification of the model. Reduce the requirements of force by using a small model or compression model. There are highly and disadvantages in two ways, and the custom chip performance is strong but cost, cycle, and the risk is very low; the cost of small models or compression models is low, but the cycle is short, but it will lead to decline in accuracy, it is difficult to high-precision and high performance. A better balance between it.

Excessive redundant calculations in the existing AI calculation and the ability to operate the capacity of the work engine constrain the mining of chip performance. In the case of the imbalance of the chip resources supply and demand, the mainstream practice is a challenge to attack productivity.

There is also a technical team. A family called CoCoPie AI company announced that you can dig existing chip points from the software level by compression and compiling collaborative design technologies, which is expected to make existing chip performance. So we found the person in charge of Cocopie Li Xiaofeng. According to him, CoCopie has already built Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune and other products. These products are able to process artificial intelligence applications in real time without additional additional artificial intelligence hardware.

He told infoq: "Cocopie unique AI software technology stack, solves the development and popular bottleneck problem of end side, which is still unique in the industry. Test data and customer feedback indicate that the comparative advantage with other programs is very obvious. There is a big chance to win in the tide of the end of the equipment wisdom. "

Bypassing the hardware bottleneck, double the chip power, is the software level increase whether the chip performance is feasible? In order to further understand the techniques used by Cocopie, the answer to this problem is obtained, and the InfoQ has interviewed Li Xiaofeng.

Q: What is the specific technical implementation and academic papers support by optimizing compression and compiling collaborative design, solving performance issues, specific technical implementation and academic papers?

Li Xiaofeng: Cocopie’s technical core is the three professors in the founding team. They are people who are very high and unusually diligent, and they are leaders in their respective fields. Among them, Wang Yanzhi professor has focused on the AI ??model algorithm, Ren Bin’s focus on the AI ??model compiled, and Gu Xi Peng ‘s professor’s system engine. These research areas are technically a well complement, which constitutes the iron triangle of AI calculation optimization technology, mutual indispensable, jointly builds the company’s core competitiveness, and is also a kind of sky.

First introduce the basic techniques of the AI ??model optimization. An AI task runs on the device, actually the process of maping the AI ??model to a chip instruction sequence. Compression and compilation are two key steps to perform. The compression optimization of the model itself will be reduced by the compression optimization of the model itself by weight-bearing pruning, weight quantization, reducing the complexity of the model itself. The compiled model is optimized for the compressed model. In this way, the AI ??task is more efficient, and the chip capacity can be made to the other hand.

But compress and compile these two steps, currently do not do very well in the industry. Existing technologies can only compress, or only compile, or although both have, they are designed to isolate each other, there is no good collaborative design, so it is difficult to achieve both effects of reasoning accuracy and ensuring operational efficiency. .

The core of CoCopie technology is to compress and compile two steps of "collaborative design", that is, consider compression and hardware preferences when designing compression, and select the compression model when designing the compiler. Compilation Optimization Method. Corresponding to compression and compiling two steps, we design two components for the Cocopie frame: Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune. Coco-Gen generates an efficient execution code by generating phase associations based on mode-based neural network twigs, and Coco-Tune can significantly shorten the process of compression and training of DNN models.

Cocopie technology is common and can be widely used in various CPUs.GPU, DSP and AI special chips such as NPU, APU, TPU, etc.

Cocopie published a large number of top international conference papers in the relevant field, from the upper AI application optimization technology, AI model design technology, to compiler optimization technology, underlying hardware related optimization technology. In particular, Cocopie’s technical introduction article was published in the Communications of ACM in June this year, which is the flagship publication of the US computer society, which is released with this year’s Tuling Award, which means that the academic community is highly recognized to COCOPIE.

Q: Can the current core product COCO-GEN and COCO-TUNE can be used alone?

Li Xiaofeng: These two products provide key technologies for our AI model optimization, Coco-Gen generates efficient execution code by generating phase-based code-based code generation, Coco-Tune can be significantly shortened by generating phases associated with mode-based neural network twigs with mode-based code; COCO-Tune can significantly shorten DNN model compression and training process.

Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune can be used separately. They constitute the core of the CoCopie toolchain, so it is prioritized. As a bridge that connects the upper layer AI task and the lower hardware, the Cocopie’s product system will continue to add new members.

Q: Solve the chip shortage problem from the software level, is there a similar software technology in the industry?

Li Xiaofeng: The current end Ai technology stack, only Cocopie optimization technology can meet or exceed the performance of the AI ??special chip on the mainstream chip, which is through a large measure of verification. Currently known techniques, or side heavy compression, either focused on compiling, and did not see the techniques of the two collaborative design, which is the patented technology of CoCoPie.

Because although the current mainstream chip has a good potential, we must use this potential, you must convert the AI ??task to a suitable vector calculation by compressing and compiling synergies. Quantity. This is the key to CoCopie’s technical critical.

Q: The ruler is short, the inch has a long, what is the advantages and limitations of this technology?

Li Xiaofeng: The advantage of COCOPIE is that on the one hand, it is possible to make a lot of the AI ??tasks that cannot be operated properly on the end side. On the other hand, it is dedicated to the end side. AI chipThe AI ??task can be run, and now you can run through the mainstream chip.

The implementation of the AI ??task will always be restricted by the chip’s strength. Cocopie technology has always its own limitations, and the liberated AI is not unlimited. In addition, Cocopie technology is currently focused on the AI ??inference tasks, as for the acceleration of special AI training tasks is not our focus.

Q: Cocopie technology can make the chip to increase 3-4 times, allowing the chip effectiveness to increase by 5-10 times, what is the standard? Can you achieve this level for different chips?

Li Xiaofeng: These data are actually measured, and the peer review has passed the customer’s identification. In other words, there is a technical support in technology, and there is a product in practice.

For example, comparison with universal chips and Google TPU-V2: Use Cocopie, VGG-16 Neural Networks in Mobile Equipment Samsung Galaxy S10 is nearly 18 times higher than the TPU-V2, and RESNet-50 has achieved 4.7 times. Efficiency is improved.

On the same SAMSUNG GALAXY S10 platform, both the C3D and S3Ds of behavior recognition have increased by 17 times and 22 times higher than Pytorch Mobile, respectively. Running Mobilenetv3, Cocopie’s speed increases by nearly 3 times and 4 times respectively, respectively, respectively, respectively, respectively.

In addition, the results of the QUALCOMM TREPN POWER POWER PROFILER have been shown that Cocopie is shortened than 9 times higher than the TVM, but the power is only less than 10%. In the work of DNN reasoning acceleration based on AQFP superconductance, our research is also the highest energy efficiency in all hardware devices through a low temperature test.

Q: The effectiveness of the performance will not be empty, what are the requirements for the operation of this software to the hardware environment?

Li Xiaofeng: Yes. Cocopie technology is not high, the mainstream chip can be satisfied, in particular, the chip requires vector computing power, such as the Neon instruction set, Intel’s SSE, AVX instruction set, RISC-V vector extension, etc. They are all current CPUs, GPU and APU / NPUs are not more useful. Of course, if there is no vector computing power, Cocopie’s technology can still work, but will be affected.

Q: What is the main challenge encountered during the technology practice?

Li Xiaofeng: The main challenge encountered in practice in practice is that our current product system is not very perfect, and customers’ needs are also a variety of different, and the specific service methods are very different. Therefore, we have not yet carried out large-scale business. Promotion, mainly for some key areas, key customers, such as representative mainstream chip providers, equipment providers, software service providers, etc., selectively provide services in accordance with our product development strategy. We will carry out this process, and we will work together with a variety of customer needs and continuously explore the best product service system.

Q: Is this technology currently have a practical floor case?

Li Xiaofeng: There are still more than a dozen people in collaborative customers. These customers have multiple fields, such as Tencent, Drop, a famous chip platform provider, a famous mobile phone manufacturer, and the Ministry of Communications, the world-renowned service provider Cognizant. Wait.

Q: The mainstream processor is a more popular solicity of real-time manual intelligence. Do you agree with this view?

Li Xiaofeng: Yes. For end-side devices, the mainstream processor is a more favorable solution to real-time manual intelligence.

1. From the functional say, the end side device resource is limited, the application scenario is killed, while the dedicated AI processor function is relatively curing, and the abnormal flexible functional demand for the end side has a large challenge. Mainstream processors can handle AI issues through software technology, of course, there is no need to have another branch.

2. From the technical statement, the practice of solving the special chip of the AI ??problem is actually increasing the processing capabilities of vector computing, improves memory access efficiency, and some are tensile calculation units. As mentioned earlier, the current mainstream chip is actually a vector computing unit. These vector computing units may be weak than the dedicated tensile processing chip, but the current AI task is generally sufficient, provided that there must be excellent model compression and compilation tools, able to make AI tasks through a delicate design Convert to a suitable vector calculation and control the overall calculation.

3, from the cost In addition to purchasing the cost of the AI ??chip itself, there are some recessive costs. Many chips will cause redesign of PCB, heat dissipation, and the like, and the package is also an extra cost. Many devices such as smart headphones, micro medical devices, etc. are sensitive to these factors.

4. It is important to emphasize that Cocopie’s technology does not exclude special AI chips. As a full stack of AI, Cocopie also supports the AI ??processor to allow AI processors to play a greater performance. Therefore, we also have an important role in a specific application area.

Q: Is Cocopie a product transition time?

Li Xiaofeng: Only, because of the generalization of the terminal AI, CoCopie is the leader of the advanced technology in this field, and we believe that its future development space is very large. We have a complete set of product development strategies in our inside, and future product forms will be different, but core technology is inherent.

In addition, it is assumed that there is a popularity of the ai-specific chip to a day, nor does it adversely affect the living space of COCOPIE. First of all, the AI ??special chip will never be more popular than the general-purpose chip. For universal chips that can be done well, it may still be more effective in universal chips; secondly, the AI ??chip has developed even if it is developed. Enhance the optimization technology. Our technology will make the AI ??chip’s ability to further improve. In fact, universal chips are the same, such as CPU or GPU, no matter how cheap, high performance, still require high performance compiler support, such as LLVM or NVCC, etc.

In a long time, the development of AI technology stacks will only get more and more demand for Cocopie software technology, just like mobile SOC chips, the function is not more and more simple, but more powerful, 8 Nuclear phones are common, and the requirements for software technology are getting higher and higher. In fact, AI calculates the requirements for integration to exceed the development speed of the AI ??hardware capabilities. According to the research report of the US MIT University, AI calculations have been developed in recent years, the development is 700 times every two years. This development speed is only impossible to meet the requirements of hardware capabilities, and must be better in software technology.

Q: How do you think about today’s popular big model technology?

Li Xiaofeng: The big model often achieves higher AI capabilities in the case of training data. This is the way to explore unknown world exploration. This is like a high-energy physics community, in order to make new discovery, it continuously constructs a higher energy of particle crash. However, this thing is also needed to see from two aspects. If you pursue a larger model, the amount of training data, training time, integration support, energy consumption, etc. are increasing, and the marginal benefits will be getting smaller and smaller. This trend is obviously unsustainable. It may only be practiced in the work of individual significant challenges in the future.

Here is a number on the big model gain, and the RESNET is a famous computer visual model released in 2015. The improved version of this model is called ResNext, which was advent in 2017. Compared with RESNET, the computing resources required by ResNext (measured with total floating point calculations), but accuracy is only 0.5%.

Give a number on carbon emissions, according to the Report of Forbes Magazine, since the depth study has developed in 2012, the calculation resources needed to generate first-class artificial intelligence models, an average of 3.4 months This means that the energy required to train the AI ??model has increased by 300,000 times from 2012 to 2018.

If you do a contrast, the ability to learn in deep learning is still a big gap even if you compare with a baby, let alone compare with the brain of adults. And our adult brain operation, only 20 watts of energy, which can only supply a bulb.

We obviously impossible only by expanding the model to improve the machine’s intelligence, and the academic circles are constantly exploring new methods.

Q: Can you talk about the basic software industry that is currently being floating? Simply talk about your judgment on the chip industry?

Li Xiaofeng: The importance of basic software is getting bigger and bigger. There are two reasons, one is that the technology has developed very quickly in recent years, and the basic software has actual needs, and it is necessary for the future; the other is that a large number of high-quality engineers have been cultivated.

The chip industry will continue to flourish. The development trend of science and technology is to continuously penetrate the digital world into all aspects of the physical world, while the simultaneization is the constant implantation of the chip in various equipment. The core means of intelligent in the upper wave of equipment is to implant the chip on the device, and the core means of running applications, and this wave of intelligent core means is to run deep neural networks on the equipment, which is a great trend of vastness. This is also the fundamental opportunity of CoCopie.

Li Xiaofeng told InfoQ, Cocopie’s technology leading advantages have been at least a few years, enough to compete in a computer field. Cocopie technology is not to solve the problem of chip shortage, but to achieve the generalization of the AI ??task, it is just a matter of happening, which is a by-product of CoCopie technology capabilities.

In Li Xiaofeng, in the face of complex and diverse scenes and terminals, the existing technical level cannot fully exert the ability of the mainstream chip, so there is a Cocopie’s development space. It can be confirmed that the development of Cocopie provides a new idea to put the chip capability "things".

Identify what road – Practice AR technology based business processes to achieve full digitization of South Union aviation bright field of view

Editor’s Recommended Language:

Strengthening the physical world to the virtual real control, real-time connectivity to form a space network, which is the essence of the universe yuan. China Southern Airlines and bright vision together, define the era’s leading interactive space subversive gestures include standard hardware and software, data and interactive paradigm paradigm and other general-purpose base specification, AR new ways of working will also be based around aviation yuan universe.

The following article comes from aviation maintenance and engineering, author Wang Jinshen, Frank Leung, Wu Fei, Zhou laser

In practice, the digital transformation of all walks of life in full swing, China Southern Locomotive system can be described at the forefront of the industry. This article on how to broaden the extension of digital systems, new technologies and scientific means endless choices, and even a certain norms and standards, so that the typical problems of digital systems "good fake to things," a simple discussion.

5G led the advent of the era of continuous progress all interconnected. The current digital technology has become the people’s work and life indispensable element, the Internet, big data and artificial intelligence and the real economy is becoming the depth of integration continued to enhance industrial competitiveness of traditional industries technical basis points. For "Fourteen five", one of four new situation in the Civil Aviation Authority proposed the idea of ??the overall work of the new era, "the wisdom of building civil aviation breakthroughs." The larger environment, the digital transition has been successively expanded in all fields of aviation maintenance. Among them, China Southern Airlines Engineering proposes to build a digital platform configuration management as the core, aircraft, personnel and resources to the virtual world of "dynamic digital portrait", effectively reflect the real changes in the physical world.

Aircraft maintenance is a typical discrete manufacturing, a lot of changes and uncertainties in the production process, many of the factors of production between long-term in a state of weak coupling. To make configuration management penetrated into the production end, so that "all traffic is digitized," China Southern Airlines joint augmented reality leader in the field of vision technology company shiny through research and exploration, found the augmented reality (AR) technology as a digital "eye "based on AR by creating work, and strive to achieve full coverage of the digital business processes.

1 digital platform with configuration-based

Configuration management is the real-time status of the physical object systematic control method "complete description" and digital output or delivery. The basic elements of configuration management is to ensure the integrity of the target configuration, accuracy and timeliness. Therefore, the need to connect all the relevant factors of production and people, equipment, processes, etc. online, and can sense changes in second-class status. Based on state-aware configuration management is the Civil Aviation Precision engineering staff unremitting pursuit of the ideal. The past five years, relying on the progress of native cloud technology, large front-end and real-time data such as engine technology, this ideal to gradually into reality.

Updating the configuration data from the business end of each link. Based on the characteristics of the civil aviation maintenance industry, the difficulty of producing such data collection ends mainly in the following areas:

1) the content of the work is not fixed and can not use the machine or standardized collection alternative embodiment;

2) in the workplace is not fixed and can not use fixed-point acquisition mode;

3) does not allow frequent interruptions of work, can not get workers ready to fill in the data;

4) factors involved in many aspects of the human-machine batch method requires a complete loop recording.

How real-time data acquisition, and faithfully reflected in the system, it is necessary to solve the problem. Further, based on the business of the whole process real-time acquisition of data base, to build a more accurate digital models, simulation and intelligent decision-making, and ultimately back to the physical site, enabling field staff to strengthen the physical world to the virtual reality control form real-time connectivity of the network space, which is the essence of the universe yuan. Combined with increasingly sophisticated 5G, cloud computing, digital twin, AR / VR and other new technologies, applications and experience the universe yuan in recent years, ushered in the explosive growth. In order to let more people into the universe yuan, based on the interaction of AR technology space, it has become the key.

The introduction of technology changes –AR 2 Human-Computer Interaction

People + AR model is a revolutionary change in the history of maintenance industry, because it opened up the last meter man and machine connections. Compared to other common information terminals, such as law enforcement recorder, intelligent flashlight, tablets and mobile phones, the advantages of AR technology is obvious. Lack of intelligence and law enforcement records flashlight that can only meet the functional single video image recording; a cell phone or tablet at the time of data entry, although more convenient, but because of the complexity of the field work and the environment, often took out his mobile and tablet also seriously reduced efficiency, increased security risks; at the same time using a variety of equipment will also have the problem of data specifications and compatibility.

As a new generation of interactions after PC, mobile phones, mobile phones, with technology development, Nantasay believes that AR glasses can meet the actual environment of the machine’s site work, become the final person and digital world One meter best tool. Workers will do not need to re-hold workers, walkie-talkies, signature pens, flashlights, and truly liberate their hands and first perspective interventions, greatly enhance the convenience of work. At the same time, along with the depth fusion of the Internet of Things (IoT), Knowledge, 5G edge calculation, AR technology can efficiently empower one-line staff at any time.

At present, most of the AR industry scenarios focus on remote engineering collaboration with the interaction function of the AR glasses, enhance the work efficiency of the first line. As of the end of 2021, South Airlines had completed the deployment of 28 major bases and external AR remote engineering at home and abroad. On this basis, China Southern is committed to building all levels such as hardware and hardware and interactive methods since 2020, which is suitable for different functional fields in the aviation maintenance industry, based on the complete solution of the AR base, and uses this as a configuration management as The epitaxial architecture of the basic digital system, the extension of the actual power of the platform.

3 to build the cornerstone of the aviation universe –Ar

3.1 Introduction of the AR base

The AR base constructs an open source ecological AR operating system, integrated enhanced reality, IOT, digital twin, AI capabilities and automation implementation, etc., has a variety of advanced productive solutions such as automation, with smooth integration interaction, natural cloud original capacity and powerful awareness Ability, gives a new work and data vision of field workers and managers. The base defines the basic specification including universal types such as hardware and software standards, data paradigms and interactive paradigms. Subsequent AR applications and terminal outputs are built on the standard and specifications of the base, and adaptive transformation and customization.

Schematic diagram of the AR base

AR base application architecture

3.2 Hardware Standard

Aviation industry has many different working environment and work scenes, there are many different needs in hardware. After deep investigation and use of existing equipment in the market, China Southern proposes its own demand for Ar hardware, and enhances realistic glasses. It is best expected.

Specification

In Ar enhanced display of the world, the core is the technique of displaying and related technologies, the main indicators are as follows.

Transmit rate. The transmittance will directly affect the wearer’s safe use in the cloudy, nights and indoors. With optical waveguide technology, the transmittance can exceed 80%, which is almost the same as the daily lenses;

b. Perspective deviation. Distortion caused by perspective deviation affects the real world that the viewer can see will bring safety hazards. Currently, the light waveguide is minimal in the optical plan on the market.

c. No light leakage, no mirror. That is, others can’t see the information you see by the wearer, and protect the work content;

d. Brightness and contrast. Both of these decides whether it can adapt to more environments, without shading, you can see more information, and make the display more integrated into reality;

e. Resolution and display of viewing angles. They determine whether sufficient content can be displayed through the head movement and coming.

Structural design specification

Structure and design, security, comfort and scalability are indicators that need to be considered.

a. Foldable integrated design is easier to carry. Professionals mechanic design and light weight can protect the wearer’s safety, comfort, and long working stability.

b. Since smart glasses have very high design integration, there are also high power components such as display, camera, so there is a need for good heat dissipation performance. And there are three anti-design to adapt to a complicated harsh environment of mechanical work. c. Requires high scalability, quickly connect, such as ranging modules, radar modules, temperature measurement modules, portable probes, etc., adapt to different maintenance inspection environments.

d. Requires Hyper-Connect super connection technology, can make the equipment independently work, can also connect to mobile phones such as mobile phones through Bluetooth and wired, and smart glasses will be in terms of performance, battery transmission, data transmission, etc. by Bluetooth and wired connection. Get jumping.

Power management specification

Smart glasses are like a mobile phone, relatively stagnation is a battery module when all of the modules are stepped. The volume of the smart glasses is destined to obtain long-term battery life through the violent stacking battery. It can only be optimized by optimizing the chip, display, etc. to improve the battery ability, ensuring that a certain amount of work can be completed; at the same time, it is also possible to ensure that the information can only be woke up for a long time when it is only needed. Reduce standby consumption.

Audio and video capacity specifications

a. Acoustic, noise suppression mode, on-site sound reducing ability for many noisy air maintenance sites and need to hear the on-site sound to do diagnosis;

b. In terms of imaging ability, the need for full depth imaging, enhancement and recognition accuracy, but also has a fast deformation response time, ultra low static power consumption and smaller volume control;

c. The headset can produce a large angular jitter, which is unacceptable for the background. It is necessary to solve the problem of anti-shake, anti-dizziness, and reduce the blizzain. At the same time, it also needs to be established on a prerequisite for lightweight, low power consumption; D. Range ability, human signs of parameters perceived ability, and even environmentally perceived ability, while the AR glasses enhances the perception, with a more powerful active sense of intelligence.

3.3 Interaction Specification

How does the information of the three-dimensional world accurately present the wearer’s field of view, by adaptive budding parallax, the left and right eyes can output different images, reach the effect of stereoscopic visual, and then pass the algorithm to different people’s refractive, clutch distance Different and display content for small range adjustments to achieve the best display effect.

Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (vSLAM) technology through virtual space image positioning technology, in addition to the information required superimposed superimposed onto a more stable foreign space, but also to perceive the spatial position of the wearer is located, information collaboration .

TOUCH multimodal fusion technology combines speech recognition, gesture recognition, body gesture recognition, spatial orientation, AI algorithms and other interactive tools, allowing the wearer to better interact with the enhanced information space.

4 Based on AR works

AR processes to work card, for example, AR is not a simple job card card electronic chemicals, but from the beginning to write, to perform, record, feedback and a series of process reengineering. China Southern Airlines Boeing 737NG main model as a pilot on the primary site has already begun work to develop and implement landing AR job card.

Written work 4.1 AR card

At present, many companies are beginning to repair the structure of the work of the cards, in short, is to previously only people who can read the cards, the cards into a computer can read and understand. The AR card is a work based on the chemical structure of this card on the steps of the cards transition to object-oriented, through the property of the object tag for the step can, such as support for three-dimensional animation drawings focus on components, dynamic risk Fu support alerts support, AI pattern recognition support, manual information, APS information support, support aids, and even the status of implementation of past records, etc., just follow these norms enhanced label, can be presented directly on the AR device in the future.

Also added to the visual editing process, the need for improving the feedback of steps, and a selection operation judgment criteria. Research performed in conjunction with feedback on the site, for editing work AR cards for continuous adjustment and upgrading.

Perform work 4.2 AR card

By reconstruction of the job card information, and optimize human-computer interaction process, the implementation of AR job cards to workers is to bring a new work experience.

1) the scene of the steps: workers no longer face the monotony of writing tasks, but with the working process and the gradual expansion of the scenes, scenes of workers to facilitate the focus of specific tasks, to fully understand the task at the same time eliminating invalid interference information; and clear the cards process route, visual guidance, the steps described multidimensional, but also to further avoid ambiguity text may bring, while clearly grasp the current progress of the situation; provide gesture signed, voice signature and interaction a variety of convenient new way to type information is automatically signed records, more records at the same time to achieve the signing of the contents of the signing of the burden borne by workers but greatly reduced.

2) into equation work guidelines: in the scene, workers have the perspective of God-oriented, enhanced signing, auxiliary camera, automatic measurement aid can wave that is coming; Handbook of information, experience documents, APS guidelines and other means of knowledge map technology easy to touch up; backstage experts can call at any time, to provide more support. Access to knowledge, decision support workers is a problem frequently encountered in their daily work, the traditional approach is to stop work to look up manuals, consulting engineers, usually from work may also need to field and office many times. With AR way, workers can facilitate access to a variety of support required, and without leaving the site.

3) immersive work experience: the establishment of the works of AR is a resource to find someone, find someone new experience knowledge, workers can easily obtain a valid field presence to support the knowledge, tools, aircraft material. Although the "man, armed with lightweight", but at any time in the "heavy artillery" support beneath, creating a "workplace" human-centered, workers can concentrate on the greatest degree of worker processes to avoid frequent interruptions.

4.3 System Upgrade

Based on lifting AR works to bring the system is also very significant.

1) safe lifting AR work cards can provide the following security methods:

. A Risk Warning: When the flow advances to related node, the risk of triggering points are generated warning;

. B identify key parts AI: The AI ??in key position to identify the state of exception is prohibited signed or implemented the next step; c multidimensional security image retention and comprehensive report: no sense of automatic working process image retention, integrated multi-dimensional integrated reporting, you can provide review and correction system upgrade;

Environment d. 5G private network can be achieved not park workers card data, network security risk of data leakage, which do not exist.

2) enhance site management

Execution information site, the implementation of real-time video, will return back the control center. Background can instantly grasp the overall situation of the site, including the overall progress and implementation of local or even individual progress, it can also perform retrieval of relevant historical data at any time, when the tasks changed, you can also distribute tasks in real-time or background to intervene.

3) objective real-time data acquisition

Based on AR manner, data collection may extend to the end of the production of full-service links, perceptually relevant real impact on the work configuration and configuration data synchronization changes, to ensure real-time configuration data is valid.

Objective collection of field data, in addition to providing security and self-analysis than the record, but also greatly enriched the maintenance records of the data, the number of data acquisition and objectivity are unmatched by traditional means, more conducive to subsequent data processing, data analysis and knowledge to feed.

4.4 explore the underlying logic

Manual workers involved in complex cross-linked card inquiries, multiplayer interactive, not only need to study how the glasses more suitable for the cards, will also consider changing the original model of the cards. The use of eye tracker data collected eye movement indicators, workers attention allocation method of analysis in this process, the conventional way to write optimizing job card; different workers simultaneously identify and correct existing problems in the allocation of attention for the improve the quality and efficiency of maintenance has obvious effect; further, correlation analysis data will be extended to the manual, put forward the demand for improved manual.

At the same time, use AR smart glasses, eye movement, collecting route, check, and other special work video processes, eye movement, pulse wave, skin current, skin temperature, heart rate, etc., not only "portrait" Provided, it will also provide valuable data support for interactive interface design, personnel working pressure, on-site work, efficiency, safety supervision, etc.

5G digital base

The 4G network is mainly focused on public service, and there is a small network on the network. There are also certain security issues in the network architecture. The 5G network focus industry application uses a variety of technical means to increase the uplink bandwidth, reduce the transmission delay, and the network architecture also improves security.

For Ar, complex scene understanding, massive three-dimensional information, real-time virtual interaction, requires high-grade power rendering, low time extension code, and high bandwidth low-delay capacity. Only 5G custom travelers can fully meet these requirements of AR development.

In the fast moving scene, 5G makes the stable millisecond real-time data synchronization possible, and also guarantees the smoothness of the AR terminal; when the virtual information is superimposed on the three-dimensional scene based on 3D graphics, the 5G large broadband role is reflected in the improvement The real-time load speed of multimedia content such as 3D model does not need to be downloaded to the local, it needs to be loaded directly from the cloud, reducing the operational burden of the terminal device; in a real sense, with 5G low-delay attribute, and the power of the cloud server Performance, you can put the rendering task to the server side, then pass back on the local AR device in the form of a video stream so that high quality 3D rendering can be obtained, allowing the AR device of the mobile chip to display top-level paintings. Quality; in the edge computing scenario that requires rapid acquisition, 5G’s core NE UPF can be used to sink to the network edge, data processing, reduce transmission delays, can quickly perform oversized data volume , Complete the initialization of the scene, closed-loop detection, etc., quickly pass the calculation result to the user. At the same time, 5G can also significantly increase the AR transmission data capacity: 5G networks can provide: QoS exclusive custom service, MIMO technology, multi-spectral capabilities, etc., can provide a more abundant network capacity for enterprise production network.

6 Hui Eye

Based on the AR-based work mode by grinding the AR base of the industrial scene, bonding high-speed generally, security and credible 5G custom network, breaking through the traditional working paradigm, forming the digitalization of AR equipment as nodes, coupling people and digital world " ". However, we must recognize that while introducing new technologies, new tools are digitally transformed, and it is inevitably experienced, and the scientific inspection standards and iterative methods can be experienced in this process. The direction of technology development, accelerating new technologies and new tools in industry applications, and form a new generation of industry norms and standards. China Southern Airlines Engineering Technology and Lightning Technical Team gradually explored the "Taoix" (taoix) of a digital technology application test in exploration and practice, which is reflected in the following five aspects.

1) Nothing and micro-intraveniting (Touchless): The use of systems, methods and tools can give more links to the system automatic completion, reduce artificial participation. This is not only for improving efficiency, it is also an effective guarantee from the source to reduce human errors and data errors; while systems, methods, and tools are used and wearing should maximize interference on normal natural behavior and perception of users;

2) Adaptive: System, method and tools require certain perception and adjustment of adaptive capabilities, including system and people, system and environment, and system and system and system and systematic, adaptation, and automatic adjustment capabilities;

3) Continuous optimization (Optimized): The use of systems, methods, and tools can continue to optimize and improve process, steps, etc. Form a new industry practice;

4) Immersive: The use of systems, methods, and tools enhances the immersive feeling of work, so that the work process is not interrupted, changing the traditional people to find knowledge, people find resources, forming knowledge, Resources find some intelligent immersive working paradigm;

5) Extensible: As business needs continue to extend, the extension of the related applications has scalable, and the full-term segment of the relevant business is passed, each end, or even the upstream of the related industrial chain.

7 Conclusion

In summary, although China Southern Air Engineering Technology has found a "眼" that AR technology as digital is found, it is striving to create an AR-based work, but it is also very hoped to continue with many partners. Relevant explorations and research makes the AR base to provide more common, open, modular services to the industry to achieve fast deployment and multiplexing. More scene applications are the direction of our continuous efforts. We believe that with the continuous expansion of the application, the power of the AR base will continue to be verified and upgraded, and the new way of working based on Arch will lead the arrival of the era of space with a subversive attitude.

About the Author :

Wang Jinthen, China Southern Aviation Engineering Technology Branch (Matient Engineering Department), deputy general manager.

Liang Weiming, China Telecom Guangzhou Baiyun Branch, General Manager.

Wu Fei, Beijing Bright Vision Technology Co., Ltd., Chairman and Founder.

Zhou Laser, China Southern Aviation Engineering Technology Branch (Machinery Engineering Department), senior engineer.

Medical Health Industry Weekly | Micro-Clun Artificial Intelligence Strategic Investment Mouthwash Brand "Respiratory Ocean"; China’s first full magnetic suspended artificial heart approved

In recent years, the innovation of medical and healthy industry has continuously emerged, and it has developed one of the most active industries, 36 witness and accompanying the growth of innovative enterprises in this field, and bringing professional voices to the industry.

To this end, 36 has launched the "Medical Health Industry Weekly", which will be issued regularly, providing readers with capital, policies, finance, new products and other industry information.

November 28, the medical health industry weekly, please check. The industry weekly reported the financing news reported by the "36 Venture Channel" in the medical and health field of this week, as well as other domestic and foreign industry news.

  • Micro-cloud artificial intelligence strategy investment mouthwash brand "breathing ocean"

The mouthwash brand "Respiratory Ocean" has obtained Micro-cloud artificial intelligent investment. It is reported that this round of financing will be used in the offline channel development. "Respiratory Ocean" focuses on the field of mouthwash, according to the introduction, its first product adheres to the alcohol-free partner, using mild antibacterial submethum, adding citrus lemons, etc., pregnant children can also use. According to company founders Luo Xiaobai, "breathing ocean" is currently sold through e-commerce channels, and has not yet been provided.

36 first | strategic investment mouthwash brand "breathing ocean",? Micro-cloud artificial intelligence accelerated layout oral market

  • "Winter Thunder" won the 200 million yuan C wheel investment in China

The Winter Leader Group (hereinafter referred to as Winter Lisco), which is built by the doctor group, has completed the 200 million yuan C wheel financing, which is exclusively investing by China. It is reported that the Winter Lead will use this financing fund to accelerate the strategic landing of "one-piece two wings", and implement the brain physical hospital + full life cycle brain health management + brain science research and platform hatching strategic model. This round of financing is a exclusive financial adviser by Yikai Capital. Winter Lisco was founded by Professor Song Dongley, chief physician, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, from 2015, has developed from 2015 to the present, by 2019, has realized Shanghai Winter Thunder Hospital entities.

36 first | Social doctors continue to be recognized, "Winter Thunder" won the Chinese 200 million yuan C wheel investment

  • Art Miao Shenzhou completed hundreds of millions of dollars strategic financing

Beijing Yimomiao Shenzhou Medical Technology Co., Ltd. completed hundreds of millions of D round strategic financing. This round of financing is jointly participated by the National Souven-Health Fund lead, Guangfa and Shuishu, and Yajie Angel, as well as the company’s existing investor countries, and Longmen Fund continued support. This financing fund will be used to accelerate clinical promotion pace and commercial production and development, and promote the company’s IM19 has become the first domestic self-developed cell drug while expanding product line representing solid tumors and UCART.

  • Micro-long gene completes 300 million yuan D round financing

Guangzhou Micro-long gene declares D round financing of total amount of 300 million yuan. This round of financing has been brought to many old shareholders such as Boxing Investment, the front wheel leader and Dinghui VGC, and the funds raised by the financing will mainly use the product development and upgrade, medical device product registration, industrial chain layout and other strategies. direction.

  • Reading Technology completes hundreds of millions of yuan A + round financing

The reading science and technology announced the completion of hundreds of millions of yuan A + round financing, and the investors included Daxie Capital, Rongquan Ventures, Tianshi Capital, and Shanda Group’s Investment Fund. The fundraising funds will be used to accelerate the multi-product parallel R & D, China and American clinical trials and commercialization. At present, the reading technology has developed a variety of cardiovisual and brain-based imaging assistance, including the first CT-FFR product pulse? Completed China’s clinical trials, it is expected to receive NMPA III medical equipment registration certificates in 2022 , FDA certification and the US clinical trial process have also started. Software shadows in full-heart function evaluation, relying on DSA images to complete software silhouettes of coronary vessel morphology and functional analysis, cerebrovascular physiological function assessment software skull? Successful innovative products have also entered the clinical trial stage.

  • Rui Rui bioreases PRE-A round financing

Beijing Rui Rui Biotechnology Co., Ltd. announced the completion of nearly billion PRE-A round financing, from Chen De Capital, Shaanxi Growth, Sunshine Ronghui, Chang Development and other institutions, the old shareholder Anlong Fund added investment sustained support. This round of financing funds will be used in a number of clinical line proposals, including HPV-positive cervical cancer and head neck tumors, KRAS G12V mutant colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer, TCR-T cells, and related TCR proteins Drug products.

  • Class 1 Biological New Drug Enwali single anti-injection liquid (KN035) obtains attachment approval

Corning Jerry and the Thoughts Di Pharmaceutical, the first class of creatures reached a strategic cooperation in the prognosis of the pharmaceutical cooperation (KN035) has been approved by the attachment. The adaptation approved by the Enwali monocker is: adaissions for adults in adults in adults (MSI-H) or mismatch repair gene defective (DMMR), non-removable or metastatic microsateree, Internal patients with advanced colorectal cancer in patients with disease progression after treatment with fluorouracil, O’Soliplatin and Ilikang and other advanced solid tumors in which disease progression and no satisfactory have no satisfactory replacement treatment plan.

  • Guangzhou Shunjian Biomedical Technology Co., Ltd. 1 type of innovation drug Orebetni tablets approved

The 1 type of innovative drug declared by Shunjian Biomedical Technology, Orebet Niibi has been approved in the recently approved. The drug can be used to treat any tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, and use a fully verified detection method to diagnose chronic myeloid leukemia chronic or accelerated adult patients with T315i mutations. This variety is a drug in China to approve chronic myeloid leukemia indications with T315i mutations.

  • Idea Conservylowali single anti-injection is approved

Enwo Lee Anti-Note (Commodity Name: Enva) by Sichuan Sichuan Cori Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. has been approved by the priority review approval process. This approved adaptation is: treatment for adult advanced solid tumor patients with non-resection or metastatic microsatellite height unstable (MSI-H) or mismatch repair gene defective (DMMR), including past fluorouracil, Other advanced solid cancer patients with disease progression after treatment after treating diseases, and past treated diseases and other advanced solid tumors in which disease progression and satisfactory replacement treatment regimens were treated.

  • Yusheng Medicine Original 1 Class New Drug Orebet Niki is approved

Yosheng Medicine Original 1 New Medicine Orebati (Commodity Name: Nelg) was approved for the treatment of any tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance, and diagnosed with fully verified detection method Adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or an acceleration period (AP) with T315i mutation.

  • CCD CHENCKEK? Get a batch of leukemia for treating chronic myeloid

Cinda Original 1 Class 1 New Drug Orebati (Olverembatinib, Product Name: Ekima) officially approved by the China National Drug Administration ("NMPA") for treatment of any tyrosine kinase inhibitor ("TKI") drug resistance, and uses a fully validated detection method to a chronic period (CP) or an acceleration period (AP) adult chronic myeloid leukemia ("CML") patient with T315i mutation. This is the sixth product approved by the company, as well as the second approved small molecule product.

  • Junshi Biological anti-PD-1 monopoly anti-batch nasopharyngeal carcinoma

The PD-1 inhibitor of Junshi Biological R & D Tripili Anti (Duo) New Indications has been approved. This approved new indication is: Tripili combined withdrawal treatment for recurrent metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) of the late line unreachable systemic treatment. This is also the fourth indication of Tripili combined in China after melanoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (three-wire treatment) and urinary tract.

  • The front line | Start large-scale prospective study, 鹍鹍 生物 癌 早 早 早筛 技术 技术 技术 技术 技术 技术 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商

36 learned that Shanghai Yuyuan Biotechnology Co., Ltd. jointly established and Shanghai International Human Phenotheracery Research Institute, and China’s 11th National Top Hospital in Shanghai, China. Screen research.

It is reported that the proposal study of the premature proposal of the inner carcinoma is expected to be more than 60,000 people, covering 10 provinces and municipalities in East China, North China, South China, Southwest.鹍 鹍 生物 自主 自主 的 癌 早 早 产品 早 早??? 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商 商

In addition, the "Welfare Plan" expert committee was published by Wang Chen, Wang Chen, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Academician, Nanjing Medical University, Academician, Zhongnan University, Zhou Hongqi, Zhongnan University, Shanghai Branch Zhao Guoshan, Academician, Shanghai Branch, School of Health, Fudan University, Taizhou Health Science Research Institute 30 more than 30 Top expert consists …

  • The front line | The first full magnetic suspension artificial heart was approved by the city, and the artificial organ entered the harvest.

On November 26th, the artificial heart R & D enterprises were in concentric, and the new generation of all-magnetic suspended artificial heart CH-VADs with complete independent intellectual property rights was officially approved.

It is reported that this is the first domestic artificial heart with NMPA approved by China, and has obtained many patents in China and the United States. It will bring hope for patients with heart failure in China.

With the advancement of medicine, the incidence of a variety of cardiovascular disease is greatly reduced, but as a final development stage of various heart diseases, cardiac failure has become the only disease in the field of cardiovascular disease …

Editor: Don Yu Ting

Building a service closed loop map science and technology to help retail market digital upgrade

Computer vision has evolved from an artificial intelligent technical topic to create value for business. In China, many successful cases come from the scientific retail industry. In foreign countries, both semiconductor giants Intel or retailers GAP Inc., companies in different industries are increasingly striving to intelligently incorporate artificial intelligence into their operational techniques. But one of the potential pain points is how to extend the AI ??project from the idea, and the gestation period to the full integration of the business.

Digital Digital in the store requires a Digital Store Platform that can integrate sales systems and operations systems to enhance customer experience and operational efficiency. Computer vision is one of the key technologies that can achieve these goals. Through its perception, judgment, executive empowerment enterprises, thereby achieving the purpose of transformation experience and business efficiency.

Artificial Intelligent Technology Enterprise Scientific Technology AI digital business solution has a wide range of representative, which shows how computer vision technology is how to enable existing and new digital contacts of retail enterprises, helping companies achieve business objectives. .

Building 3D digital items by automatic identification and automatic 3D modeling technology, improving customer experience and operational efficiency.A IT retail head brand has always rely on the advertising company’s product propaganda shooting and combined with the marketing materials, but the product is much, the market characteristics of the iterative, and the material materials depending on the traditional way are difficult to keep up with the rhythm. Spectrum Technology AI digital commodity solutions will support this process, intelligent automation, and program support instant automation to create multiple categories 3D products, 3D product manuals, marketing scenarios, support customers to put 3D digital products into different scenarios. Digital live experience and real-time iterative analysis.

3D digital merchandise shopping, 3D digital experience hall, support real-time interaction.影 科技 technology and China’s home appliance leader Haier reached a strategic cooperation, jointly built a home appliance numerous business solution, expanding the visual presentation ability of the commodity multimode coexistence, and realizes interactive immersion shopping experience.

Optimize the shopping experience through 3D virtual customer service robots, and build service closed loops to help retail sales.The picture score technology intelligent service system can coordinate deployment to complete the exclusive digital virtual person, virtual store shopping guide patrol, virtual after-sales instructor, etc. Virtual store patrol robot can help store to reduce the shortage and product display errors, improve customer experience; virtual after-sales instructor maximize customer use interests, reduce misunderstanding chances; digital virtual people are reflected in various live, shopping guide, etc. Digitalize customer behavior, support business decisions by capturing customer interaction processes, and transforming them into relevant quantitative indicators to support business decisions.

In the retail scenario, the brand, retailer, and consumers are asymmetrical. This also leads to time and efficiency. In the past few years, the complexity of online retail growth has grown index. On the one hand, the retail brand is a change in sales. On the other hand, it lacks automation IT technology to enhance the digitization of goods and marketing materials.

For retail brand, cost, efficiency, experience seem to form an impossible triangle. In the face of continuous digital contacts, the retail brand must obtain a full range of visualization capabilities, data-related analysis, end-to-end digitization experience, and seamlessly integrate into the entire business digitized chain. With the reduction of traditional customer experience, it will help retailers to achieve cross-platform collaboration AI twins solution will determine who can stand out.

From the above-mentioned investural score technology, you can see that it constructs one-stop closed-loop service capability and advantage in the retail area. It is understood that the scientific technology has opened the computer vision AI generation technology and digital twin technology, providing end-to-end in the industry and enterprises, and retail solutions will operate through the real-time interaction 3D into the core. Transfer to visual data, help brand retail build 3D retail platform, analyze, track business decisions, and optimize market strategies including pricing, product delivery, promotion, effectively enhance corporate operation efficiency, Help the retail market to digitally upgrade.

Afghanistan Taliban highlights today: US war in Afghanistan a ‘strategic failure’, says top American general

Afghanistan Taliban Crisis LIVE Updates: Chairman of US Joint Chief of Staff General Mark Milley called the US’ war in Afghanistan “a strategic failure” in front of the members of the Senate Armed Services Committee on Tuesday. “The enemy is in charge in Kabul, there’s no way else to describe that,” he said.

Along with Milley, US Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin and Gen Frank McKenzie, Commander of US Central Command, told the Committee that the Pentagon had recommended US President Biden about the need to keep 2,500 American troops in Afghanistan post withdrawal, to which he disagreed. However, the White House defended the decision, acknowledging that it was a split recommendation from Biden’s advisors and generals.

In other news, the Afghanistan Civil Aviation Authority under the new Taliban regime has written to India’s Directorate General of Civil Aviation seeking resumption of flights operated by its airlines Kam Air and Ariana Afghan Airline to and from Delhi. DGCA chief said that the Ministry of Civil Aviation will take a call on the matter as this was a policy issue.