Children who love science must see: Frontier technology, understand the surface of the world

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If someone tells you, the world around us is just an illusion, it is built in our minds, what will you feel?

If someone tells you that artificial intelligence can not only replace human work, but can you feel panicked in replacing human thinking?

If someone tells you, the inspiration you get from the gentle makes humans on the walls of the high-rise building as Spider-Man, are you interested in trying?

Such problems are not the imagination of Tianma, and the development of science and technology has made them become the possibility of reality. And the answers to these questions, several duckling documents can tell you.

Human brain research, life science, artificial intelligence, new materials, new energy … etc., The results of scientific research, not only the great invention creation since the 21st century, but also the combination of best creativity and best design, give us Cognitive the new perspective of the world.


"Deep into the brain"

Release time: 2015

Collection: 6 episodes

Single set length: 56 minutes

If someone says that the real world has no sound, no smell, no color, do you think he is challenging your common sense?

Following the story of David Eagleman, the ultimate puzzle in the brain was slowly launched. The human brain is called the most complicated thing found in the universe. In the past few decades, scientists have been constantly exploring these 3 pounds of gels, what happened, let us eventually become us.

The film is short and delicate. Each episode has clearly proposed a problem, with a large number of experimental examples, analyzes our brain and related consciousness activities in a variety of perspectives such as bioscience, awareness.

What is a reality? In the face of the information, brain input, output, processing from the outside world and gives it rich. Time sensation can be connected to memory. If "deep into the brain" tells you, the brain can "deceive" will, how much time is not a timepiece, but will, do you agree?

What is it shaped? It is the habit of gene, memory and from small acquisitions, and the Brain communication method, in shaping your emotions, personality and behavior.

Who is doing decisions? The subconscious, consciousness, and unconsciously constitute the rules of the internal body of the brain, but also affect each decision made by the brain. When you think that you "can’t help but help", it is unconventional or subconscious "manipulating" your brain?

How can I decide? The rheological and inductive part of the brain participated in the decision made by the brain, and the rational part is responsible for analyzing and cons., And the inductive part will make a decision directly under the subconscious role. When you face a major decision, "go deep into the brain" suggest you to avoid empty stomach and obeying intuition.

Why do I need you? The generation of prejudice, the interaction of groups means that population discrimination and persecution require more mutual understanding and transposition.

Who are we? The philosophical problem was successfully proposed. "What makes you?" What make up, what is the consciousness can be copied? Can a computer simulate a human brain? Is the human body can be extended? Come and find answers!

Our feelings, our beliefs and hopes, everything we happen in the brain. How the human brain creates a miracle slowly launched in the thinking narrative, revealing our ultimate story, and why we feel and think about what we do. "In-depth brain" combines scientific and innovative visual effects and fascinating personal stories, proposes and solves the six major problems. By understanding the human brain, we can get close to humanity.

"Deep into the brain"

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"Hello, AI"

Release time: 2019

Collection: 5 episodes

Single set length: 20 minutes

Starting from the famous "Hello, World" in the computer program language, human beings have been in greeting constant updated iterative computer technology, "Hello, Ai" is a friendly greetings from the world’s most eye-catching artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence, English abbreviation is Ai, a branch of computer science, is a new technique for developing intelligence, methods, techniques, and application systems for simulation, extension and expanding people. science.

Is it still a foggy water? Don’t understand what AI is? This "Hello, Ai" is finished, you will understand!

"Hello, Ai" is divided into 5 episodes, divided into five themes "Mars Plan", "Activation History", "Natural Syndrome", "Evolutionary Boat", "Future Vision", showing AI in cultural heritage protection, Save endangered species, overcome medical problems, explore the applications in multiple application scenarios such as universe, and explore the relationship between artificial intelligence and human development.

In the concentration of "activation history", AI replaced "new equipment" to the record work of more than 700 caves in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes. History is activated like this! AI combines image collection technology, erosion with sand, runs, records each frame of Dunhuang historical cultural relics, every wiping color; add AI to drone, you can provide full The angle image collection, automatic generation of repair recommendations, to the Chinese historical business cards to the vicissitudes of the broken wall; AI can also include a few ethnic languages ??that disappear … As the science and technology AI, it is not a cold object with no feelings. It is a high energy helper in human life.

15 people’s true stories involving 77 people, 43 institutions, launched 119 days, footprints over more than 30 domestic and international cities, across the Asia, Europe, America, non-4 continents, minimum shooting temperature minus 40 degrees … five The 8K documentary "Hello AI" is divided into different applications in different applications. From the perspective of artificial intelligence and human development, artificial intelligence to help and change human life.

This is not only a history of creative technological progress, but also a journey full of love and warmth; this is not only a scientific blockbuster, but also a history of time, close to life, and I am connected to you.

"Hello AI"

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Material Revolution

Release time: 2016

Collection: 4 episodes

Single set length: 52 minutes

From the stone era, every major breakthrough in materials science and technology will cause the revolution of production technology and greatly accelerate the process of social development. Imagine that the building can withstand the test of the earthquake, the bacteria can secrete gasoline, miniature equipment can help us repair damaged cells or even DNA, spider silk can withstand the entire bridge, the elevator can let us live straight. When you can also have the artificial "super power" of Spider-Man, do you change whether the views of the world will change?

These prospects for future prospects are based on today’s exploration and discovery. A new material science, from the most basic unit that makes up all things in the universe. The continuous innovation of materials technology allows human beings to create innovation, explore unknown roads, and the CCTV documentary "Material Revolution" will take you approachable all kinds of materials, and explore how to hide the material under the surface. How to build From the world.

What can the most intelligent material in the world? The safest material can resist what kind of risk? What is the minimum material to do? What kind of use is the most robust material? The answers to these issues will gradually start in the "Material Revolution".

For example, looking for the most intelligent materials in the world, this is a type of reaction that is more sensitive and can make more complex reactions. Their appearance will give human new capabilities and constantly expand their own opportunities. do you know? There is a "self-healing" material, the oil tank uses the coating of "bulletproof jacket", can resist the rain, AK47 bullets will not leak; there is a "cross-composite wood" material to help the 1920s The construction of the building is from collapse in the earthquake … how, the sci-fi slice can not be alive!

Today, we feel modern civilization and progress in the steel forest of Human Hemon. In the future, we can’t help but make boldly, we will create anything we want to create anything we want, promote deeper scientific and technological revolution and industrial change.

Material Revolution

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"New energy source"

Release time: 2015

Collection: 4 episodes

Single set length: 45 minutes

Whether it is from economic, climate change, national security perspective, or global political perspective, energy is almost driving behind all events on the earth. With the deepening of the world’s energy crisis, people are increasingly urgently needing more renewable energy, such as solar energy, geothermal, wind energy, etc. In the future, new energy, this is not exhausted, and inexhaustible, non-polluting can be used, attracting the attention of the world.

Documentary "Future New Energy" puts energy into the international stage, describes the challenges of future energy from all angles to find a clean, unlimited, secure energy, and its transmission. From the sea oil drilling platform of the Mexico to Canada’s oil sand, from Washington to China, this show travels more than 30 places worldwide, at the end of the world, in the deep seabed, in high-precision science laboratories, visit Those windsmen in the development of the future energy-free mouth, tell the wonderful stories behind the development of energy.

Finding energy is not easy, as the most valuable goods in modern society, energy for social development, civilization continues with important value. How will you start if you give you a chance to develop blueprints in the future? In various dimensions such as economic benefits, social benefits, environmental benefits, the future energy development mainstream will flow?

The continuous development of science and technology promotes our spirit, and the material life is fully improved. When we are busy running in the real world, we should stop looking at, think, recognize the rich connotation and significance of the world’s surface.

"New energy source"

Around the hardware bottleneck, double the chip power, and the software level is deeply excavated by the chip performance?

If you are inventory in the past two years of industry hot words and social hot words list, the "chip" must be famous.

With the broad practice of AI technology in all walks of life, the application layer is getting higher and higher. Correspondingly, the requirements for deep learning on chip power increases. Information age, everywherechipHowever, the chip is a scarce resource.

There are two ways to work in the industry, one is a custom chip, one is a modification of the model. Reduce the requirements of force by using a small model or compression model. There are highly and disadvantages in two ways, and the custom chip performance is strong but cost, cycle, and the risk is very low; the cost of small models or compression models is low, but the cycle is short, but it will lead to decline in accuracy, it is difficult to high-precision and high performance. A better balance between it.

Excessive redundant calculations in the existing AI calculation and the ability to operate the capacity of the work engine constrain the mining of chip performance. In the case of the imbalance of the chip resources supply and demand, the mainstream practice is a challenge to attack productivity.

There is also a technical team. A family called CoCoPie AI company announced that you can dig existing chip points from the software level by compression and compiling collaborative design technologies, which is expected to make existing chip performance. So we found the person in charge of Cocopie Li Xiaofeng. According to him, CoCopie has already built Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune and other products. These products are able to process artificial intelligence applications in real time without additional additional artificial intelligence hardware.

He told infoq: "Cocopie unique AI software technology stack, solves the development and popular bottleneck problem of end side, which is still unique in the industry. Test data and customer feedback indicate that the comparative advantage with other programs is very obvious. There is a big chance to win in the tide of the end of the equipment wisdom. "

Bypassing the hardware bottleneck, double the chip power, is the software level increase whether the chip performance is feasible? In order to further understand the techniques used by Cocopie, the answer to this problem is obtained, and the InfoQ has interviewed Li Xiaofeng.

Q: What is the specific technical implementation and academic papers support by optimizing compression and compiling collaborative design, solving performance issues, specific technical implementation and academic papers?

Li Xiaofeng: Cocopie’s technical core is the three professors in the founding team. They are people who are very high and unusually diligent, and they are leaders in their respective fields. Among them, Wang Yanzhi professor has focused on the AI ??model algorithm, Ren Bin’s focus on the AI ??model compiled, and Gu Xi Peng ‘s professor’s system engine. These research areas are technically a well complement, which constitutes the iron triangle of AI calculation optimization technology, mutual indispensable, jointly builds the company’s core competitiveness, and is also a kind of sky.

First introduce the basic techniques of the AI ??model optimization. An AI task runs on the device, actually the process of maping the AI ??model to a chip instruction sequence. Compression and compilation are two key steps to perform. The compression optimization of the model itself will be reduced by the compression optimization of the model itself by weight-bearing pruning, weight quantization, reducing the complexity of the model itself. The compiled model is optimized for the compressed model. In this way, the AI ??task is more efficient, and the chip capacity can be made to the other hand.

But compress and compile these two steps, currently do not do very well in the industry. Existing technologies can only compress, or only compile, or although both have, they are designed to isolate each other, there is no good collaborative design, so it is difficult to achieve both effects of reasoning accuracy and ensuring operational efficiency. .

The core of CoCopie technology is to compress and compile two steps of "collaborative design", that is, consider compression and hardware preferences when designing compression, and select the compression model when designing the compiler. Compilation Optimization Method. Corresponding to compression and compiling two steps, we design two components for the Cocopie frame: Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune. Coco-Gen generates an efficient execution code by generating phase associations based on mode-based neural network twigs, and Coco-Tune can significantly shorten the process of compression and training of DNN models.

Cocopie technology is common and can be widely used in various CPUs.GPU, DSP and AI special chips such as NPU, APU, TPU, etc.

Cocopie published a large number of top international conference papers in the relevant field, from the upper AI application optimization technology, AI model design technology, to compiler optimization technology, underlying hardware related optimization technology. In particular, Cocopie’s technical introduction article was published in the Communications of ACM in June this year, which is the flagship publication of the US computer society, which is released with this year’s Tuling Award, which means that the academic community is highly recognized to COCOPIE.

Q: Can the current core product COCO-GEN and COCO-TUNE can be used alone?

Li Xiaofeng: These two products provide key technologies for our AI model optimization, Coco-Gen generates efficient execution code by generating phase-based code-based code generation, Coco-Tune can be significantly shortened by generating phases associated with mode-based neural network twigs with mode-based code; COCO-Tune can significantly shorten DNN model compression and training process.

Coco-Gen and Coco-Tune can be used separately. They constitute the core of the CoCopie toolchain, so it is prioritized. As a bridge that connects the upper layer AI task and the lower hardware, the Cocopie’s product system will continue to add new members.

Q: Solve the chip shortage problem from the software level, is there a similar software technology in the industry?

Li Xiaofeng: The current end Ai technology stack, only Cocopie optimization technology can meet or exceed the performance of the AI ??special chip on the mainstream chip, which is through a large measure of verification. Currently known techniques, or side heavy compression, either focused on compiling, and did not see the techniques of the two collaborative design, which is the patented technology of CoCoPie.

Because although the current mainstream chip has a good potential, we must use this potential, you must convert the AI ??task to a suitable vector calculation by compressing and compiling synergies. Quantity. This is the key to CoCopie’s technical critical.

Q: The ruler is short, the inch has a long, what is the advantages and limitations of this technology?

Li Xiaofeng: The advantage of COCOPIE is that on the one hand, it is possible to make a lot of the AI ??tasks that cannot be operated properly on the end side. On the other hand, it is dedicated to the end side. AI chipThe AI ??task can be run, and now you can run through the mainstream chip.

The implementation of the AI ??task will always be restricted by the chip’s strength. Cocopie technology has always its own limitations, and the liberated AI is not unlimited. In addition, Cocopie technology is currently focused on the AI ??inference tasks, as for the acceleration of special AI training tasks is not our focus.

Q: Cocopie technology can make the chip to increase 3-4 times, allowing the chip effectiveness to increase by 5-10 times, what is the standard? Can you achieve this level for different chips?

Li Xiaofeng: These data are actually measured, and the peer review has passed the customer’s identification. In other words, there is a technical support in technology, and there is a product in practice.

For example, comparison with universal chips and Google TPU-V2: Use Cocopie, VGG-16 Neural Networks in Mobile Equipment Samsung Galaxy S10 is nearly 18 times higher than the TPU-V2, and RESNet-50 has achieved 4.7 times. Efficiency is improved.

On the same SAMSUNG GALAXY S10 platform, both the C3D and S3Ds of behavior recognition have increased by 17 times and 22 times higher than Pytorch Mobile, respectively. Running Mobilenetv3, Cocopie’s speed increases by nearly 3 times and 4 times respectively, respectively, respectively, respectively, respectively.

In addition, the results of the QUALCOMM TREPN POWER POWER PROFILER have been shown that Cocopie is shortened than 9 times higher than the TVM, but the power is only less than 10%. In the work of DNN reasoning acceleration based on AQFP superconductance, our research is also the highest energy efficiency in all hardware devices through a low temperature test.

Q: The effectiveness of the performance will not be empty, what are the requirements for the operation of this software to the hardware environment?

Li Xiaofeng: Yes. Cocopie technology is not high, the mainstream chip can be satisfied, in particular, the chip requires vector computing power, such as the Neon instruction set, Intel’s SSE, AVX instruction set, RISC-V vector extension, etc. They are all current CPUs, GPU and APU / NPUs are not more useful. Of course, if there is no vector computing power, Cocopie’s technology can still work, but will be affected.

Q: What is the main challenge encountered during the technology practice?

Li Xiaofeng: The main challenge encountered in practice in practice is that our current product system is not very perfect, and customers’ needs are also a variety of different, and the specific service methods are very different. Therefore, we have not yet carried out large-scale business. Promotion, mainly for some key areas, key customers, such as representative mainstream chip providers, equipment providers, software service providers, etc., selectively provide services in accordance with our product development strategy. We will carry out this process, and we will work together with a variety of customer needs and continuously explore the best product service system.

Q: Is this technology currently have a practical floor case?

Li Xiaofeng: There are still more than a dozen people in collaborative customers. These customers have multiple fields, such as Tencent, Drop, a famous chip platform provider, a famous mobile phone manufacturer, and the Ministry of Communications, the world-renowned service provider Cognizant. Wait.

Q: The mainstream processor is a more popular solicity of real-time manual intelligence. Do you agree with this view?

Li Xiaofeng: Yes. For end-side devices, the mainstream processor is a more favorable solution to real-time manual intelligence.

1. From the functional say, the end side device resource is limited, the application scenario is killed, while the dedicated AI processor function is relatively curing, and the abnormal flexible functional demand for the end side has a large challenge. Mainstream processors can handle AI issues through software technology, of course, there is no need to have another branch.

2. From the technical statement, the practice of solving the special chip of the AI ??problem is actually increasing the processing capabilities of vector computing, improves memory access efficiency, and some are tensile calculation units. As mentioned earlier, the current mainstream chip is actually a vector computing unit. These vector computing units may be weak than the dedicated tensile processing chip, but the current AI task is generally sufficient, provided that there must be excellent model compression and compilation tools, able to make AI tasks through a delicate design Convert to a suitable vector calculation and control the overall calculation.

3, from the cost In addition to purchasing the cost of the AI ??chip itself, there are some recessive costs. Many chips will cause redesign of PCB, heat dissipation, and the like, and the package is also an extra cost. Many devices such as smart headphones, micro medical devices, etc. are sensitive to these factors.

4. It is important to emphasize that Cocopie’s technology does not exclude special AI chips. As a full stack of AI, Cocopie also supports the AI ??processor to allow AI processors to play a greater performance. Therefore, we also have an important role in a specific application area.

Q: Is Cocopie a product transition time?

Li Xiaofeng: Only, because of the generalization of the terminal AI, CoCopie is the leader of the advanced technology in this field, and we believe that its future development space is very large. We have a complete set of product development strategies in our inside, and future product forms will be different, but core technology is inherent.

In addition, it is assumed that there is a popularity of the ai-specific chip to a day, nor does it adversely affect the living space of COCOPIE. First of all, the AI ??special chip will never be more popular than the general-purpose chip. For universal chips that can be done well, it may still be more effective in universal chips; secondly, the AI ??chip has developed even if it is developed. Enhance the optimization technology. Our technology will make the AI ??chip’s ability to further improve. In fact, universal chips are the same, such as CPU or GPU, no matter how cheap, high performance, still require high performance compiler support, such as LLVM or NVCC, etc.

In a long time, the development of AI technology stacks will only get more and more demand for Cocopie software technology, just like mobile SOC chips, the function is not more and more simple, but more powerful, 8 Nuclear phones are common, and the requirements for software technology are getting higher and higher. In fact, AI calculates the requirements for integration to exceed the development speed of the AI ??hardware capabilities. According to the research report of the US MIT University, AI calculations have been developed in recent years, the development is 700 times every two years. This development speed is only impossible to meet the requirements of hardware capabilities, and must be better in software technology.

Q: How do you think about today’s popular big model technology?

Li Xiaofeng: The big model often achieves higher AI capabilities in the case of training data. This is the way to explore unknown world exploration. This is like a high-energy physics community, in order to make new discovery, it continuously constructs a higher energy of particle crash. However, this thing is also needed to see from two aspects. If you pursue a larger model, the amount of training data, training time, integration support, energy consumption, etc. are increasing, and the marginal benefits will be getting smaller and smaller. This trend is obviously unsustainable. It may only be practiced in the work of individual significant challenges in the future.

Here is a number on the big model gain, and the RESNET is a famous computer visual model released in 2015. The improved version of this model is called ResNext, which was advent in 2017. Compared with RESNET, the computing resources required by ResNext (measured with total floating point calculations), but accuracy is only 0.5%.

Give a number on carbon emissions, according to the Report of Forbes Magazine, since the depth study has developed in 2012, the calculation resources needed to generate first-class artificial intelligence models, an average of 3.4 months This means that the energy required to train the AI ??model has increased by 300,000 times from 2012 to 2018.

If you do a contrast, the ability to learn in deep learning is still a big gap even if you compare with a baby, let alone compare with the brain of adults. And our adult brain operation, only 20 watts of energy, which can only supply a bulb.

We obviously impossible only by expanding the model to improve the machine’s intelligence, and the academic circles are constantly exploring new methods.

Q: Can you talk about the basic software industry that is currently being floating? Simply talk about your judgment on the chip industry?

Li Xiaofeng: The importance of basic software is getting bigger and bigger. There are two reasons, one is that the technology has developed very quickly in recent years, and the basic software has actual needs, and it is necessary for the future; the other is that a large number of high-quality engineers have been cultivated.

The chip industry will continue to flourish. The development trend of science and technology is to continuously penetrate the digital world into all aspects of the physical world, while the simultaneization is the constant implantation of the chip in various equipment. The core means of intelligent in the upper wave of equipment is to implant the chip on the device, and the core means of running applications, and this wave of intelligent core means is to run deep neural networks on the equipment, which is a great trend of vastness. This is also the fundamental opportunity of CoCopie.

Li Xiaofeng told InfoQ, Cocopie’s technology leading advantages have been at least a few years, enough to compete in a computer field. Cocopie technology is not to solve the problem of chip shortage, but to achieve the generalization of the AI ??task, it is just a matter of happening, which is a by-product of CoCopie technology capabilities.

In Li Xiaofeng, in the face of complex and diverse scenes and terminals, the existing technical level cannot fully exert the ability of the mainstream chip, so there is a Cocopie’s development space. It can be confirmed that the development of Cocopie provides a new idea to put the chip capability "things".

OnePlus smartphone lineup decoded: OnePlus 9 Pro to OnePlus Nord CE, which phone is for you?

Selecting a OnePlus phone was much easier when the brand launched the OnePlus One back in 2014. While getting your hands on one was difficult due to the invite-only system, one could simply put their money on the latest OnePlus device and stay assured of making the best possible purchase.

However, the brand now has multiple parallel series. These include the classic OnePlus (number) series, along with a OnePlus (number) Pro, a OnePlus (number)T, and even a rumoured OnePlus 9RT. That is apart from the entirely separate Nord series of mid-range devices. If that feels too confusing for you, go through our in-depth look at the brand’s smartphone lineup to understand which OnePlus phone is the best pick for you.

OnePlus (number) series

The OnePlus (number) series is the longest running series the brand has had, from the OnePlus One all the way to the current OnePlus 9. The flagship phone is a good balance between sleek design, all the latest features, clean software and a fast, performance-oriented experience, although it is not the best the company can offer in terms of display quality and camera performance.

The current iteration of the OnePlus (number) series is the OnePlus 9. It features a 120Hz AMOLED screen, the Snapdragon 888, up to 12GB RAM and 256GB UFS 3.1 storage. There is a 48MP+50MP+2MP triple camera and a 4,500mAh battery with 65W fast charging.

OnePlus (number) Pro series

The Pro series started with the OnePlus 7 Pro and today it is the brand’s most powerful sub-category. The OnePlus 7 Pro, 7T Pro, 8 Pro and 9 Pro have offered the best flagship experience the company can offer year after year, including camera performance, general performance, display quality and design. These are also the brand’s most expensive phones.

The current phone in the series is the OnePlus 9 Pro, which comes with a 6.7-inch AMOLED panel with 120Hz, a QHD resolution, the Snapdragon 888 chip, up to 12GB RAM, 256GB UFS 3.1 storage and a 48MP+8MP+50MP+2MP quad camera setup. It also features a 4,500mAh with 65W wired and 50W wireless fast charging.

OnePlus (number)T series

The OnePlus 6T, OnePlus 7T and OnePlus 8T are basically smaller updates to the number series that come in about six months after the launch of the original phone. For instance, the 7T launched about six months after the OnePlus 7, and stood between the OnePlus 7 and 8. Similarly, the OnePlus 8T stood between the OnePlus 8 and 9.

The brand has confirmed that there will be no OnePlus 9T this year, and the future of the OnePlus (number)T series is currently unclear.

OnePlus (number)R series

OnePlus also started a new ‘R’ series with the OnePlus 9R. The R series currently has only one device and it stands as a budget flagship alternative to the brand’s true flagships, the OnePlus 9 and 9 Pro, which have now become very expensive.

The R-series is also made possible from this year because of Qualcomm splitting its flagship Snapdragon 800-series chips into two distinct categories – the medium-grade flagship Snapdragon 870 (which is a tiny upgrade to the 865 Plus) and the more powerful Snapdragon 888.

The (number)R series will presumably feature Qualcomm’s mid-level flagship chips moving forward while the main OnePlus number and Pro series will feature the more powerful Snapdragon 888 chip and its successors.